Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Anne Wittke, Eckhart Olshausen and Richard Szydlak
This new atlas of the ancient world illustrates the political, economic, social and cultural developments in the ancient Near East, the Mediterranean world, the Byzantine Empire, the Islamic world and the Holy Roman Empire from the 3rd millennium BC until the 15th century AD.

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Egypt from the 4th to 1st cents. BC

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
I. The Ptolemaic kingdom (323 BC–12 August 30 BC) (map A) The Ptolemies established themselves in Egypt, which Ptolemy I initially (323 BC) held as a satrapy, after the death of Alexander the Great (Ptolemy’s assumption of the royal title: 305 BC). They ruled with the help of the immigrant Graeco-Macedonian upper class (functionaries, colonists, esp. in the region of the drained Lake Moiris/Faiyum, and klerouchoi), who were socially and politically dominant, but they always had to fulfil the expectations of the indigenous elite (priests, later Egyptian klerouchoi and functionaries…

Egypt in the 3rd Intermediate Period and the Late Dynastic Period (c. 1080–332 BC)

(1,814 words)

Author(s): Müller-Wollermann, R.
The maps show Egypt in periods of foreign rule (Libyans, Nubians) or suzerainty (Assyrians, Achaemenids, Macedonians), but also in times when the unity of the kingdom was restored, territorial gains were made in the Syro-Palestinian region and campaigns were conducted in the south. The contacts with the Mediterranean region, which were recorded in Greek sources as well (Herodotus), were becoming more intensive (Greek trading posts, mercenaries). The toponyms in the maps are primarily the place names as used in Classical Antiquity, followed by the modern Arabic…

Egypt in the Middle Kingdom and the 2nd Intermediate period

(1,955 words)

Author(s): Müller-Wollermann, R.
I. The Middle Kingdom ( c. 2060–1800 BC) We cannot pinpoint an exact date, but the Middle Kingdom started when the fragmented country was reunited under Mentuhotep II in the 11th Dynasty. It came to an end with the demise of the 12th Dynasty, which in turn caused the gradual dissolution of state unity. Some scholars regard the 13th Dynasty as part of the Middle Kingdom. The duration of the Middle Kingdom cannot be determined with precision, not least because there is not enough information about royal co-regencies. The kings of the 11th Dynasty were the descendants of the Theban lo…

Egypt in the New Kingdom

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Müller-Wollermann, R.
In the New Kingdom, Egypt reached its peak and greatest extension beyond the Egyptian core territory, as far as Nubia and the Middle East. Moreover, the New Kingdom is archaeologically and philologically better documented than any other period of pharaonic Egypt. The New Kingdom covers the timespan from the 18th to the 20th Dynasties; the 19th and the 20th Dynasties are also termed the age of the Ramessides, after the period’s most frequent royal name. The 18th Dynasty lasted from c. 1570 to 1315 BC, the 19th reigned from c. 1315 to 1200 BC and the 20th was in power from c. 1200 to 1080 BC. The…

Egypt in the Old Kingdom and the 1st Intermediate Period

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Müller-Wollermann, R.
I. The Old Kingdom ( c. 2680–2160 BC) Roughly speaking, the Old Kingdom extended from the 3rd Dynasty through to the 8th Dynasty; a 7th Dynasty is part of the Egyptian tradition, but did not exist in reality. As usual in the context of Egyptian history, dynasties are not necessarily royal houses defined in terms of kinship, but batches of kings who were posthumously grouped together (e.g. on the so-called Turin king list); a common residence was a defining factor. The Old Kingdom was preceded by the Thinite period (1st and 2nd Dynasties, encompassing about 300 years, with A…