Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Anne Wittke, Eckhart Olshausen and Richard Szydlak
This new atlas of the ancient world illustrates the political, economic, social and cultural developments in the ancient Near East, the Mediterranean world, the Byzantine Empire, the Islamic world and the Holy Roman Empire from the 3rd millennium BC until the 15th century AD.

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Roads and routes in the Imperium Romanum

(2,644 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
The maps show the most imporant roads of the Roman Empire. In particular, they illustrate the tightly-knit nature of the road network. No comparable empire (even the Persian Empire, for all the high priority accorded to communications structures as demonstrated by the organization of the royal roads) had a traffic infrastructure of a density to rival that of the Romans. The portrayal of the roads here pays no heed to dating. It must therefore be remembered that the road network as shown here nev…

Roman colonial foundations in Italy before the Gracchi

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Olshausen, E.
The text to the main map is found alongside the complementary map ‘Colonial foundations in Italy after 134/33–121 BC’ (p. 155). Latin city leagues (11th-4th cents. BC) (supplementary map) I. Prior history The map shows the territory of Latium, the region settled by the Latins, in the time preceding its political reorganization by Rome following the Latin War (340–338 BC). The politically independent communities ( populi) in Latium vetus, which were closely linked by the Latin language and cults, started to form their own federal organizations at an early stag…

Roman colonization

(2,151 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E. | Winkle, C.
I. Introduction It was certainly not a purpose of ancient ‘colonization’, as in the modern sense, to establish dominion over wide expanses of territory. Rather, the newly-established settlements were largely or entirely independent of the settlers’ home city in both economic and political terms. Roman colonization was an exception among colonization movements of the ancient world insofar as it served the primary purpose of militarily and politically securing Roman rule. Only in a secondary and lat…

Romans and Sassanids in the Soldier-Emperors period (3rd cent. AD)

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
In the strictest sense, the term ‘Sassanids’ denotes the Iranian dynasty descended from Sassan, and in a wider sense the inhabitants of the territory ruled by the Sassanid dynasty (cf. list of kings p. 216). The Sassanid Ardashir I rose up aginst Parthian rule and annihilated the forces of the Arsacid King Artabanus IV (213–224) on 28 April AD 224 at Hormizdâgan (not localized) in Media; Artabanus IV fell in the battle. The Sassanids went on to take over the entire Parthian kingdom, with the exception of Armenia, in a very short time. In doing so, the Sassanids inherited the problem of …

Rome’s wars in the east I (214–129 BC)

(2,306 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
Through the 2nd cent. BC, Rome fought wars in Italy, in the west and then also in the east of the Mediterranean world. The year 168, in which the Romans finally defeated the Macedonians at Pydna, is generally seen as the culmination of Rome’s development into a world power – this was how Polybius saw it at the time. But the map continues up to the establishment of the province of Asia in 129. From that year on, more than forty years passed before a Roman legion saw battle in the eastern Mediterranean. I. The 1st Macedonian War (214–205 BC) In 229, the Roman Senate pressed home its interests in…

Rome’s wars in the east II (214–129 BC)

(1,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
VI. The Syrian War (191–188 BC) As part of the partition of the Ptolemaic overseas possessions planned with Philip, Antiochus III gained Coele Syria, Phoenice and Judaea. Advised by Hannibal, who had taken refuge with him, he concentrated his ambitions on Asia Minor and Thrace, taking Lysimachea and expanding the city as a residence for his son. He also sought a presence in Greece. Expecting to be welcomed as a liberator, he landed at Demetrias in the October of 192 BC. The Aetolians there proclaimed …

Rome’s wars in the west (206 –101 BC)

(2,244 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
I. Conflicts on the Iberian Peninsula, 206–154 BC In the atmosphere of tension between Rome and Carthage, the interests of both powers clashed after the 1st Punic War (264–241) on the resource-rich Iberian Peninsula. The Carthaginians, driven by economic need, were led by the Barcids, and the Romans were urged on by their ally, the trading metropolis of Massalia. With the delineation of spheres of interest at the Iberus (Ebro, Júcar or Segura) in 226/25, the conflict over Saguntum in 221/19 and the 2nd …