Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Abstentio

(134 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] According to Roman law sui heredes acquired the inheritance due to them on succession; if a suus had not yet outwardly shown that he wanted to keep the inheritance, the praetor permitted him to abstain from it ( se abstinere). In this case the suus was still the heres, but did not receive the inheritance and was not responsible for the debts of the estate; the next in line received the bonorum possessio. An extraneus did not need an abstentio; as he did not acquire the inheritance until he came into it, he could simply relinquish it, but also declare a disclaimer ( omittere). …

Abstractum

(4 words)

see  Morphology

Absyrtus

(5 words)

see  Apsyrtus [1]

Abthugni

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (pun. p[t]bgn?). Town in Africa Byzacena, the modern Henchir es-Souar; for the tradition of the place name [1]. The   fossa regia ran close to A. (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 23084). Under  Hadrian, Abthugni became a   municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 11206; Suppl. 4, 23085). Further inscriptions: AE 1991, 461 f., no. 1641-1644. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Schmidt, s. v. Aptugni, RE 2, 288. AATun 050, sheet 42, no. 52 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire, 2, 1981, 265-277.

Abu Bakr

(81 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Abū Bakr). First of the four righteous caliphs (AD 632-34), i. e. the first successor of  Muhammad. As one of the latter's first followers and close advisor, A. became caliph after his death though not without opposition ( Ali). After subduing the apostasy movement he is credited with the initial consolidation of the young Islamic community and laid the foundation for its rapid initial expansion.   Caliph Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography W. M. Watt, Abū Bakr, in: EI2 I, 109b-111a.

Abudius Ruso

(49 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Former aedile and legionary legate under Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus in Upper Germany. A. accused him, because he had designated the son of L.  Aelius [II 19] Seianus as his son-in-law, but he was then banned himself (Tac. Ann. 6,30,2). PIR2 A. 17. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Aburius

(90 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] C., Roman envoy (171 BC) C., envoy to King Masinissa and the Carthaginians 171 BC; his offspring was possibly the mint master C. Aburius Geminus 134 (MRR 1, 418; RRC 276). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Tribunus plebis (187 BC) M., attempted as tribunus plebis in 187 BC to prevent the triumph of M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 39,4-6); Praetor inter peregrinos 176 (Liv. 41,14; 15). His offspring was possibly the mint master M. Aburius Geminus 132 (MRR 2,369; 400; RRC 280). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Aburnius

(89 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Caedicianus, Q. (2nd cent. AD.) A. Caedicianus, Q., legatus Augusti, probably to a legion in Dacia under Trajan (CIL III 1089); became suffect consul together with C. Bruttius Praesens under Hadrian in AD 118 or 119; owner of the figlinae furianae and tempesinae between AD 123 and 140 (CIL XV 227-230; 603-605; 607-608). He was mentioned by Marcus Aurelius, εἰς ἑαυτόν 4,50 (FPD, 213 f.; PIR A 21). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] A. Valens, see  Fulvius. A. Valens, see  Fulvius. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Abū Simbel

(252 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] A location on the west bank of the Nile valley in Nubia, c. 250 km south of Aswān, where Ramses II had two temples hewn out of rock cliffs [1]. The great temple in the south is dedicated to the holy triad of Amun, Ptah and Re-Harakhte, and to the Pharaoh himself. Its pylon-shaped stone facade is dominated by four 20-metre statues of the throned Pharaoh. Inside, two halls with massive square pillars and a transverse hall lead to the inner sanctuary; the temple axis is oriented in such a way th…

Abusina

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Modern Eining. Tab. Peut. 4,3 f. Arusena, the modern river Abens. From AD 79/81 cohort fort ( castellum; 1.8 hectares) at the crossing of the Danube. Reduced size fort from about AD 300; the   vicus of the middle imperial period relocated into the fort: its northern extension perhaps a horreum from the second half of the 4th cent. AD. In the field named ‘Unterfeld’ remains of an ephemeral camp ( legio III Italica) from about AD 172/179.  Horrea;  Cohors;  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography A. Faber, Die südgallische Terra Sigilata aus Kastell und …

Abydenus

(77 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] (Ἀβυδηνός; Abydēnós). Author of a ‘History of the  Chaldaeans’ (Euseb. Praep. evang. 9,41,1: περὶ Ἀσσυρίων; perì Assyríōn) that was used by Eusebius and others (partly available in Armenian only). The (lost) work was primarily based on excerpts from Alexander Polyhistor which in turn can be traced back to Berossus. Nothing is known about his life; his Ionizing dialect places him in the 2nd century AD (FGrH 3 C no. 680). Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)

Abydus

(516 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin)
(Ἄβυδος; Ábydos). [German version] [1] City at the narrowest part of the Dardanelles This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture  Miletus founded A. as a polis in the 1st half of the 7th cent. BC, by permission of the Lydian king  Gyges (Str. 13,1,22). It is situated at the narrowest part of the Dardanelles, on the Asian shore, 5 km east of Çanakkale on the promontory of Cape Nagara and already known to Homer (Il.…

Acacia

(187 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἀκακία [ akakía], Dioscorides 1,133; ἄκανθα [ ákantha], Theophr. Hist. pl. 6,1,3). The Egyptian shittah or rubber tree, already mentioned in Hdt. 2,96, belongs to the genus of mimosa plants widespread in the Mediterranean. The sap ( kommì, gum) secreted by the tree was used by the Egyptians for embalming corpses (Hdt. 2,86), but then also in human medical applications (ophthalmology) and was traded at high prices in Roman times (Plin. HN 13,63). The acacia sap was processed into mouth pastilles (Plin. HN 24,109) for…

Acacius

(589 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἀκάκιος; Akákios). [German version] [1] Rhetorician and poet from Caesarea Rhetorician and poet from Caesarea, contemporary of  Libanius, who mentions A. numerous times in his letters, also known through Eunapius (Vitae Sophist. 497, cf. PLRE s. v. Acacius 6-8). After completing his studies in Athens, A. taught in Antioch [1]. He is said to have been superior to Libanius because of his natural talent. A. may have authored Ὠκύπους (Lib. Ep. 1380 W. = 1301 f.), the parody of a tragedy that was passed down …

Academus

(132 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀκάδημος). Attic hero, who was venerated in the grove  ‘Akademeia’, 1.6 km west of Athenian Dipylon (a cultic building is presumed). Hecademus is probably an older form of the name (a vase inscription reads hεκα[δεμος] Beazley, ABV 27,36). He revealed to Castor and Polydeuces that Theseus was holding their sister Helena, abducted from Sparta, in Aphidna (Plut. Theseus 32,3-5), and founded the gymnasium (Hesych. s. v. akadḗmia). In gratitude the Spartans spared the academy during their invasions of Attica. The myth competes with another, in whic…

Academy

(2,433 words)

Author(s): Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen)
(Ἀκαδήμεια, Ἀκαδημία; Akadḗmeia, Akadēmía). School for philosophers in Athens, founded by Plato and maintained continuously over three (according to others: nine) centuries. Here, our emphasis will be on the Academy as an institution. Dogmatic aspects will be discussed in the entries on individual philosophers and those on  Middle Platonism and  Neoplatonism. [German version] I. Plato's School Plato began teaching philosophy around 387/6 BC after returning from his trip to Sicily and southern Italy, where he had met with the Pythagoreans associated w…

Academy

(7,934 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan (Mannheim RWG) | Frobenius, Wolf (Saarbrücken RWG) | Barth, Andreas (Tübingen RWG)
I. General (CT) [German version] A. Definition (CT) The word ‘academy’ is not used in a uniform manner. In addition to scholarly academies dedicated to research, the term denotes various scholarly, pedagogical and social establishments. There are medical academies; music, dance and art academies; as well as church-related ones ( A. II. musical). Scholarly (i.e. research) academies, on the other hand, are associations of scholars with the purpose of furthering research and academic communication. Their names have been changed many times over the centuries: they have been known as soc…

Acadra

(73 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Coastal area of Indo-China A coastal area of Indo-China mentioned by Ptol. 7,2,6. Excavations in Arikamedu indicate that this region enjoyed trade with Rome during the 1st cent. AD. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) [German version] [2] City of southern China City of southern China recorded only by Ptol. 7,3,5, possibly associated with the πόλις Ἀσπίθρα ( pólis Aspíthra) and the Psitharas river mentioned by Plin. HN 6,35. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Acamantis

(130 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀκαμαντίς; Akamantís). Since the reforms of the phyles by  Cleisthenes, fifth of the ten Attic phyles (IG II/III2 1700 ff.); eponymous hero  Acamas. In the 4th cent. BC, it comprised five   asty , three   paralia and five   mesogeia demes. In 308/7 BC, three of them changed over to the Macedonian phyles of Antigonis and  Demetrias; following their dissolution in 201/200 BC, they rejoined A.  Prospalta changed over to the  Ptolemais in 224/3 BC,  Hagnus to the  Attalis in 201/0 BC, Eitea to the  Hadr…

Acamas

(291 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἀκάμας; Akámas). Son of Theseus, normally closely connected to his brother  Demophon. A similar history is assigned to both brothers. Their mother appears in different forms: Phaedra (Diod. Sic. 4,62; Apollod. epit. 1,18), Ariadne (schol. Od. 11,321) or Antiope (Pind. fr. 175). Although they are not found in the Iliad, according to the Ilioupersis (fr. 6 PEG) they are present in Troy and during the plundering of the city they free their grandmother Aethra from prison. In various sources both brothers are named as lovers of Priam's …
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