Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Daphnephoria

(388 words)

[German version] (Δαφνηφορία; Daphnēphoría). A ritual carried out everywhere Apollo bore the epithet daphnēphóros (‘branch wearer’) (e.g. IG IX 2, 1027). Only the Theban ritual has been verified; the sources are Pindar, Proclus and Pausanias, who each deal with a different stage in the process. The most detailed description is by Proclus, who explains the daphnephoric ode sung by a girls' chorus (Photius 321a-321b). The ritual is supposed to have been held on an enneaeteric basis (every ninth year). A paîs amphithalḗs (‘child flourishing on both sides’) led the procession; b…

Daphnephorikon

(259 words)

[German version] (δαφνηφορικόν; daphnēphorikón). A song sung by maidens at the  Daphnephoria, a festival for Apollo Ismenios in Thebes (Paus. 9,10,4). Proclus (Phot. 321a34) reports daphnēphoriká as part of Pindar's Partheneia; the Suda s.v. Πίνδαρος counts daphnēphoriká amongst the 17 books (in addition to the Partheneia). POxy. 4,659 (1904) = Pind. fr. 94b Snell-Maehler provides us with a substantial fragment of a daphnēphorikón. The poem was written in honour of Agasicles, the grandson of an Aeoladas (l. 9), to whom fr. 94a is obviously addressed. Pagon…

Daphnis

(540 words)

Article Table of Contents[1] Mythical cowherd[2] Greek architect from Miletus (Δάφνις; Dáphnis). [German version] [1] Mythical cowherd Mythical cowherd of Sicilian tradition, son of  Hermes (Stesich. fr. 102 PMG = Ael. VH 10.18; Timaeus, FGrH 566 F 83; Diod. Sic. 4,84,2). He died still a youth because of an unfortunate love affair with a  nymph and was honoured with ritual mourning songs typical of those for Adonis (Theoc. 1,64ff.; 7,73ff.). In bucolic poetry he served as the ideal for the adolescent shepherd an…

Daphnoides

(136 words)

[German version] (δαφνοειδές or χαμαιδάφνη; daphnoeidés or chamaidáphnē). The name used for two types of daphne in the texts of Dioscorides (4,146 [1. 288 = 2. 444] and 4,147 [1. 289f.= 2. 444]), for Daphne laureola L. or alpina L. from the Thymelaecea genus with evergreen leaves similar to laurel. When drunk, an infusion of these leaves was said to have emetic, expectorant and diuretic properties and also to promote menstruation. They were also distinguished from the varieties with leaves similar to the olive tree such as camelaiva (Dioscorides 4,171 [1. 320] = 4,169 [2. 464]…

Daphnus

(113 words)

[German version] (Δαφνοῦς; Daphnoûs). Port of the Locri Epicnemidii (Str. 9,3,17; Plin. HN. 4,27), today known as Agios Konstantinos, situated on the coastal plain of Longus on the Euboean Gulf. From the time of the first Sacred War ( c. 590 BC) the entire coastal strip belonged to the Phocians (Scyl. 61; Str. 9,3,1), who secured an access to the Aegean Sea via D. After the third Sacred War D. was returned to Locris in 346 BC. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, …

Dara

(222 words)

Article Table of Contents[1] City in Parthia[2] City in nothern Mesopotamia [German version] [1] City in Parthia This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Hellenistic states City in the mountain region of Apavortene in Parthia. According to Pompeius Trogus (Iust. 41,5,2-4), this place was distinguished by its strategic and geographical merits (Plin. HN 6,46) and was founded by the Parthian king  Arsaces [1] I. As the region is mentioned elsewhere (as Apauarktikene, Isid. by Charax, 1,13, and Partautikene/ Artakana Ptol. 6,5), but not the ci…

Daras

(191 words)

Article Table of Contents[1] River which rises in the Upper Atlas[2] River flowing into the Persian Gulf [German version] [1] River which rises in the Upper Atlas River which rises in the Upper Atlas (Δύρις; Dýris), flows through the region to the south of the Anti-Atlas mountains and into the Atlantic Ocean, today known as Oued Dra. Other forms of the name: Dyris, Vitr. De arch. 8,2,6; Darat, Plin. HN 5,9; Δάραδος or Δάρας; Dárados or Dáras, Ptol. 4,6,6; 9; 14; Dara, Oros. 1,2,31. It is possible that the D. can be identified with the Λίξος ( Líxos) mentioned by Hanno, Periplus 6 (GGM 1,5) …

Dardae

(116 words)

[German version] (Δάρδαι; Dárdai). A people in north-west India, Darada in Old Indo-Aryan, today known as the Dards and resident in the region known as Dardistan on the upper reaches of the Indus. Hdt. 3, 102ff. places them in the region below the sources of the Indus where the Δαράδραι ( Darádrai) mentioned by Ptol. 7,1,4 are also to be found. Also mentioned by Plin. HN 6,67 and 11,111 ( Dardae, probably following Megasthenes), Dionys. Per. 1138, Steph. Byz. i.a. According to Megasthenes (F 23b bei Str. 15,1,44), the Δέρδαι ( Dérdai) live on a high plateau in the east and steal gold …

Dardanees

(58 words)

Article Table of Contents[1] A people living by the river Gyndes[2] see Dardae [German version] [1] A people living by the river Gyndes A people living by the river  Gyndes (modern Diyālā), whose territory was traversed by  Cyrus II on his expedition to Babylon (Hdt. 1,189). Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) [German version] [2] see Dardae Another form of the name for the  Dardae (Δάρδαι; Dárdai) of northern India. Treidler, Hans (Berlin)

Dardani

(391 words)

Article Table of Contents[5][1] Another term for Trojans[2] Inhabitants of the probably mythical town of Dardania on Mt Ida[3] Inhabitants of the area known as Dardania or the city of Dardanus on the Hellespont between Zelia and Scepsis[4] A tribe identified with the Dardani in Moesia superior (Δάρδανοι; Dárdanoi). [German version] [5] Powerful Illyrian tribal group in the south-western part of Moesia superior, strongly influenced by Thrace, particularly in the east of the region. The region was within the sphere of influence of the Macedonians, who gained control over Dardania in c. 335 BC. However, the D. continued to strive for a certain degree of independence. In 284 BC they were united under the rule of one king and waged prolonged wars against the Macedo…

Dardanidae

(283 words)

[German version] (Δαρδανίδαι; Dardanídai). Descendants of the Trojan progenitor  Dardanus, who produced the Trojan ruling dynasty. The genealogy of the D., save their heroines, is recounted by Aeneas in the Illiad (Hom. Il. 20,215ff.): The son of Dardanus, the king of Dardania on Ida, is Erichthonius, whose son is Tros. Tros's three sons are Ilus, Assaracus and  Ganymede. The last is abducted by Zeus's eagle to serve the gods as a cup-bearer (Hom. Il. 5,265f.). Ilus founds Ilium (Conon narr. 12; Str. 13,1,25), his tomb is suppos…

Dardanus

(1,277 words)

Article Table of Contents[1] Son of Zeus[2] Founder of the Samothracian Mysteries[3] from Athens Stoic philosopher[4] City on the Asiatic bank of the Hellespontus (Δάρδανος; Dárdanos). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus Son of Zeus, who of all his mortal sons loved this one the most (Hom. Il. 20,215; 304), and either a mortal mother or the Atlantid Electra/Elektryone (Hes. fr. 177/80 MW; Hellanic. FGrH 4 F 23). Eponymous hero of the  Dardani, who lived on Mt Ida, and in Homer are linked with the Trojans and frequently synonymous…

Dareikos

(318 words)

[German version] (δαρεικός, δαρικός, δαριχός, dareikós, darikós, darichós). Greek name, deriving from Darius I, (Hdt. 4,166; 7,28f.; Thuc. 8,28) for the generally bean-shaped gold coins (στατήρ, statḗr) of the Great King of Persia. The occasionally used terms dareikoi Philippeioi and argypoi dareikoi are incorrect. The first coins, minted in c. 515 BC and the same weight as the kroiseios ( c. 8.05g), which did not replace the latter until 30 years after the fall of the Lydian Empire, show a symbolic representation of the Persian king on the obverse ─ kne…

Dares

(240 words)

Article Table of Contents[1] Trojan priest of Hephaistus[2] One of Aeneas' companions[3] Supposedly a witness of the Trojan War (Δάρης; Dárēs). [German version] [1] Trojan priest of Hephaistus Trojan priest of Hephaistus, whose sons Phegeus and Idaeus start the battle against  Diomedes. Whilst the former is killed by Diomedes, Idaeus is rescued by Hephaistus (Hom. Il. 5,9-26). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography G. S. Kirk, The Iliad: A Commentary, vol. 2, 1990, 54 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 408f. [German version] [2] One of Aeneas' companions One…

Dargamanes

(115 words)

[German version] A river in  Bactria, which rises in the Paraponisus and supposedly joins the  Ochus to the west of the Zariaspes (Balhāb), and then flows together with the Ochus into the Oxus ( Araxes [2]). In fact there were two different rivers called Ochus, confused by Ptolemy: the Zariaspes (Balḫāb) and the Harērud. The former must be the one referred to here, which joins the Oxus, as the D. or Qunduz river (Arabic Nahr al-Ḍarġm̄) flows into the latter. Ptolemy (or his predecessor Marinus) ma…

Dargoidus

(61 words)

[German version] River in  Bactria, which rises in the Parapanisus and flows northwards to join the Oxus ( Araxes [2]) east of the Zariaspes, and which used to supply the region of Choana (today known as Qunduz) with water. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege) Bibliography W. Henning, Surkh Kotal, in: BSO(A)S, 1956, 366f. Id., The Bactrian inscription, in: BSO(A)S, 1960, 47-55.

Darioritum

(82 words)

[German version] Principal city of the Veneti in the Gallia Lugdunensis, today known as Vannes, on the Gulf of Morbihan. Documentary evidence: Ptol. 2,8,6; Tab. Peut. ( Dartoritum); Not. Galliarum 3,8 ( civitas Venetum). A prosperous city during the Roman imperial period, D. was protected by a city wall during the troubled times of the 3rd cent., a wall which, as indicated by the remains, only enclosed part of D. Inscription.: CIL 13, 3140f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Pape, La Bretagne romaine, 1995.

Darius

(855 words)

Article Table of Contents[1] D. I. Son of Hystaspes[2] D. II. Son of Artaxerxes [1] I[3] D. III. Last king of the Achaemenids[4] Son of Xerxes I[5] Eldest son of Artaxerxes [2] II (Ancient Persian Dārayava(h)uš, ‘Guardian of Good’, Greek Δαρεῖος < Δαρειαῖος; Dareîos < Dareiaîos). The name of various Persian kings and princes [3]. D., the Mede (Dan. 9) cannot be identified historically. [German version] [1] D. I. Son of Hystaspes Son of  Hystaspes, grandson of  Arsames [1], from the Achaemenid family ( Achaemenids), became king (522 BC) [1], after banding togethe…

Darius Crater

(159 words)

[German version] Apulian voluted crater from  Canosa (found in 1851) in Naples (NM, Inv. 81947 [H 3,253], H 130cm, [1]), known as the eponymous work of the  Darius Painter named after it. The main face has the crown council of Darius in the centre [1] I., with paymasters and tribute bearers below and Athena with Hellas before Zeus and Apate before Asia above. Archaeological study interprets this as a representation of the victories of  Alexander' [4] the Great in Persia or an echo of contemporary …

Darius Painter

(180 words)

[German version] Apulian vase painter working c. 340/320 BC, named after the main figure on the  Darius Crater. On the vessels he painted (including voluted craters, lutrophoroi, amphorae), some of which are monumental, he generally depicted scenes from classical tragedies (Euripides) and themes from Greek myth; some of these are only documented through his work. Other vases show scenes depicting weddings, women and Eros, as well as Dionysian motifs and rare sepulchral representations ( Naiskos vases). His tendency to name people and representations in inscriptions ( Persai, Pat…
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