Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Habitancum

(126 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman camp near modern Risingham (Northumberland), one of the outposts north of Hadrian's Wall in the Rede valley. Little is known about the early phases of occupation; there is no evidence that the fort was built at the same time as Hadrian's boundary wall. A camp certainly existed in the 140s; in the Severan period it was a major base for the occupation of the north. The garrison of H. was the Cohors IIII Gallorum in the 2nd cent . and the cohors I Vangionum in the 3rd cent., accompanied by a numerus exploratorum and a vexillatio Raetorum Gaesatorum. Inside the camp there is…

Habitatio

(223 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] Initially means home, e.g. as the object of purchase and sale (  locatio conductio ; Dig. 2,14,4; 19,2,5) or a protective object of the lex Cornelia de iniuriis (Dig. 47,10,5,5). Habitatio also means the right to live, which is founded in part on legacy (  legatum ) (Dig. 7,8,10 pr.). The relationship of the habitatio to the   usus and the   usus fructus (usufruct) was doubtful. In effect ( effectu quidem) the habitatio legata ‘almost’ ( paene) was covered by the usus legatus (Papin./Ulp. Dig. 7,8,10 pr.). The Roman jurists occupied themselves with questions lik…

Habitus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Cluentii ( Cluentius [2]) and others. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Habron

(310 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Ἅβρων; Hábrōn). Greek grammarian, a slave of Phrygian origin, taught (and perhaps also studied) first on Rhodes, then in Rome in the 1st half of the 1st cent. AD (Suda α 97 Adler). He was a student of the Aristarchian  Tryphon and dealt with the same topics as the former although he took another position and also criticized the teaching of Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace in regard to pronouns (cf. [1. 1520; 7. 91]). Nine quotations from his work Περὶ ἀντωνυμίας (‘On the pronoun’) ar…

Habronichus

(102 words)

Author(s): Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἁβρώνιχος, also Ἀβρώνιχος; Habrṓn, Habrṓnichos). Son of Lysicles, Athenian from the Lamptrae deme (on the form of the name [1]). He brought the news of the defeat of  Leonidas at Thermopylae (Hdt. 8,21) to the Greek fleet at Artemisium in 480 BC. In 479 he was sent to Sparta with  Aristides [1] to inform  Themistocles of the progress of the wall construction (Thuc. 1,91,3). Later H. was a candidate for  ostrakismos, his name (with demotikon) is found on several ostraca (ML 21). Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. E. Raubitschek, (H)abronichos, in: CR 70, 1…

Habur

(515 words)

Author(s): Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin)
[German version] (Akkadian Ḫābūr, Greek Χαβώρας/ Chabṓras; not identical with Araxes [1. 43]). Largest tributary in north-eastern Syria of the  Euphrates, on the lefthand side. Fed by karst springs that come to the surface in 13 basins near Rās al-Ain (Rēšainā). Initially the H. runs south-east to Hassaka (upper reaches), and is then diverted to the south by the Kaukab volcano (lower reaches); the mouth is close to the town of Buṣaira (Circesium). The H. catchment area (‘H. triangle’) drains the so…

Hacoris

(51 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Herieus, father of Euphron (Greek for Herieus) (OGIS 94; PKöln 4,186). Commanded troops under Comanus against Anchwennefer in 187 BC, probably as the strategos of Hermopolites or Cynopolites. Appellation of the town of Acoris [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, Hakoris, in: AncSoc 22, 1991, 235ff.

Hadad

(533 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] (the name should perhaps be regarded as etymologically related to Arabic hadda ‘break, hit’, haddat, ‘thunder’). Evidence: Jos. Ant. Iud. 9,93 (Ἄδαδος); Phil. Bybl. FGH 3, 569, 24 (Ἄδωδος); Plin. HN 37,186 ( Adadu); Macr. Sat. 1,23,17 ( Adad). Western Semitic name of the  weather god venerated in cult worship as Adad in Akkadian, as Tarhu(a)n(t) in cuneiform Luwian and Hittite, from the middle of the 3rd millennium in numerous local formulations (especially as Ḫadda of Ḫalab/Aleppo [1]). Iconographically he appears a…

Hades

(923 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen)
[German version] (ᾍδης; Háidēs). Greek term for the Underworld and its ruler. Various spellings are attested: Aides, Ais and Aedoneus in Homer, H. (aspirated) only in Attica. The etymology is unclear; the most recent proposal is that H. should be traced back to *a-wid ‘invisible’ [1. 575f.], cf. however [2. 302]. Outside Attica, for instance in Homer (Il. 23,244; Od. 11,623), the word can also designate the  Underworld, whose gates are guarded by the hell-hound  Cerberus (Il. 5,646; 8,368). In Home…

Hadramaut

(211 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Arabic Ḥaḍramaut, Ḥaḍramōt, Ḥaḍramūt; Ἁδραμύτα; Hadramýta, Theophr. Hist. pl. 9,4). Ancient southern Arabian kingdom with capital Sabota, i.e. Šabwa(t) in the west; its residents are the easternmost people of Arabia Felix, the so-called Chadramōtítai (Str. 16,4) or Atramitae (Plin. HN 6,155). In ancient times H. was not only the valley of that name with its catchment areas but comprised the entire region up to the Arabian Sea. The kingdom of H. is attested from the 7th cent. BC in Ancient Southern Arabic inscription…

Ḥâḍra ware

(297 words)

Modern technical term designating the Hellenistic painted hydriae, which were produced mainly between 270 and 180 BC; named after the Egyptian place where they were found, Ḥâḍra near Alexandria, where the majority of the around 300 known examples came to light. They are derived from white-ground hydriae, which were formerly also counted as belonging to this type. Their provenance from central Crete is today considered certain on the basis of scientific analyses. Production continued here with unpainted examples until into the 1st cent. BC. Four main groups (workshops) were dist…

Hadria

(247 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Regio, regiones (modern Atri). At first Hatria, later H., town 7 km west of the Adriatic coast in the south of Picenum ( regio V) between the Vomanus (modern Vomano; Sil. Pun. 8,438) and the Matrinus (modern Piomba). Founded by the Siculi and Liburni, captured by the Piceni. After its subjugation a colonia Latina was founded (289 BC; Liv. per. 11) that minted coins bearing the legend HAT(ria) (cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἁτρία). Municipium, tribus Maecia [1. 64], recolonized by Sulla or Augustus. T…

Hadrianis

(122 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἁδριανίς; Hadrianís). Last of the five post-Cleisthenian  phyles of Attica, set up in AD 127/8 in honour of emperor Hadrian. Each of the 12 phyles at the time (10 Cleisthenian, Ptolemais, Attalis) gave the H. a deme. To this the new deme  Antinoeis was added in AD 130 after the death of  Antinous [2]. The trittyes played no part in the formation of the post-Cleisthenian phyles. The proportional representation of the demes in the phyles had been abandoned in 201/200 BC. The imperial lists of bouleutai for the individual demes therefore show an inhomogenous picture. …

Hadrianopolis

(637 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Belke, Klaus (Vienna) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἁδριανόπολις; Hadrianópolis). [German version] [1] City in Paphlagonia Caesarea (Καισάρεια; Kaisáreia). City in Paphlagonia in the basin of Eskipazar (formerly Viranşehir), close to the fortress of Semail, the centre of the Paphlagonian region of Sanisene [2]. In 6/5 BC this, together with Potamia and Marmolitis, became a regio attributa [1. 116ff.] of the Paphlagonian eparchía of the province of Galatia, which was soon organized as the pólis of H. (originally Καισαρεῖς Προσειλημμενεῖται [1. no. 1]). Before AD 305/6 H. was defeated and became the province of…

Hadrianus

(554 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἁδριανός; Hadrianós) [1]. [German version] [1] Rhetor Sophist from Tyre, at 18 years of age a favourite pupil of  Herodes Atticus (Philostr. VS 2,10,585-586). With  Flavius Boethus (also from Phoenicia) he attended the anatomy lectures of  Galen in Rome in AD 162-166 (Gal. 14,627; 629 Kuhn). He may perhaps have been the target of mockery in Lucian's Pseudologístēs [1]. He taught in Ephesus (Philostr. VS 2,23,605) and (163-169) [2] honoured his patron there, the consular Cn.  Claudius [II 64] Severus, with a statue and a poem [3; 4]. From 176 at the l…

Hadrianus [II]

(2,592 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A. Origin and senatorial career Roman Emperor AD 117-138. Son of Senator P. Aelius Hadrianus Afer and one Domitia Paulina; his home town was  Italica in the Spanish province of Baetica. Born on 24 January 76 probably in Rome as P. Aelius Hadrianus. When he was 10 years of age he lost his father, who had achieved the rank of praetor. The eques Acilius Attianus and the senator (later emperor) M. Ulpius Traianus, his great-uncle (see stemma in [1. 308]), both likewise from Italica, became his guardians. At an early age he was made acquainted wi…

Hadrumetum

(320 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Rome (Ἀδρύμης; Hadrýmēs). Phoenician trading centre on the east coast of Tunisia, modern Sousse. Evidence: Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM I 88); Sall. Iug. 19,1; Solin. 27,9. From the Punic or Neo-Punic period come the Tofet (with prominent steles), a necropolis (with various tomb offerings) and over 60 inscriptions. In 310 BC H. went over to the side of  Agathocles [2] (Diod. Sic. 20,17,3-5)…

Hadylium

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἁδύλιον, Ἡδύλε[ι]ον; Hadýlion, Hēdyle[i]on). Mountain range (modern Vetritza) with an average ridge height of 300-400 m (highest point: 543 m) on the northern border of Phocis and Boeotia. In the west at Parapotamioi separated from  Parnassus by the Kephisos. In the east and southeast bordering on the mountains Palaiovouna (ancient Hyphanteion?) and Akontion. Evidence: Dem. Or. 19,148 (with schol.); Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 157; Str. 9,3,16; Plin. HN 4,25; Plut. Sulla 16f. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, I,2, 425.

Haedui

(314 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Powerful, rich people of the Gallia Celtica (later Lugdunensis;  Gallia). In the west the region of the H. was essentially bounded by the rivers Doubs and Saône; in the north their neighbours were the  Senones, the  Mandubii, and the  Lingones. Alliances with the  Bituriges in the west and the Senones,  Parisii, and  Bellovaci in the north made it possible for the H. to control trade from the Mediterranean to the English Channel; close relations with the  Boii gave them access to the ri…

Haematite

(206 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Haematite (αἱματίτης; haimatítēs, haematites) is seen today as a form of red iron ore. Theophrastus (De lapidibus 37, [1. 70]) derives its name from the appearance of dried blood ( haîma). In the ancient kingdoms of the Orient it was highly valued as a precious stone. Pliny recommends it among other things for treating blood-shot eyes (HN 36,144-148), and for staunching blood flow in consumptives and women. Following Sotacus, a Greek lithologist of the 4th cent. BC, he distinguishes five kinds, and referring …
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