Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Iabadiou

(61 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ἰαβαδίου; Iabadíou; Old Indic Yavadvīpa, modern Java or Sumatra). Large island in south-east Asia (Ptol. 7,2,29). The identification is still disputed but Ptolemy knew that the name meant ‘Island of Barley’ (Old Indic, yava, barley). Supposedly it was rich in gold and its capital was called Argyre. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s.v. I. nesos, RE 9, 1175-77.

Iacchus

(322 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἴακχος; Íakchos). One of the deities of the Mysteries of  Eleusis [1]. I. is the personification of the ecstatic cultic cry ( íakchos, onomatopoetic) by the participants in the Mysteries during their procession from Athens to the Eleusinian sanctuary where they underwent initiation into the mysteries (Hdt. 8,65; Aristoph. Ran. 316-353). His image, which was kept in a temple of Demeter, Kore and I. by the Pompeion at the Sacred Gate (Paus. 1,2,4, probably identical with the Iaccheion Plut. Aristides 27,4), was carried ahead of this procession by the iakchagōgós (‘lead…

Iacobus Psychrestus

(108 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Physician, the son of Hesychius of Damascus, changed his residence in the early 6th cent. AD in order to join his father's medical practice in Constantinople. He treated emperor Leo, whereupon he became a   comes and   archiatros (Chron. pasch. 8254a; Malalas, Chronographia 370 Dindorf; Photius, Bibliotheca 344A). As a pagan philosopher who was honoured in Athens and Constantinople with statues, he ordered the rich to help the poor. The latter he incidentally treated without charging a fee. His nic…

Iactus

(175 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The technical term in Roman law for ‘jettison’, the unloading of goods at sea from a ship in distress. The so-called lex Rhodia de iactu held that in these cases a community of endangerment of all involved existed: between the damaged party, the mariner ( nauta) and the owners of the salvaged load. In fact, this lex was a customary law throughout the Hellenistic world. Specifically, the damaged party could demand his share of compensation from the mariner in a service contract suit ( actio locati), while the mariner could in turn demand a compensation from the oth…

Iader

(244 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (τὰ Διάδωρα; tà Diádōra). Liburnian foundation of the Iron Age, later the most important city of Liburnia in the province of Dalmatia, modern Zadar (Italian Zara) in Croatia (Mela 2,57; Plin. HN 3,140 colonia Iader, cf. 141; 152; It. Ant. 272,1f.; cf. 496,7; 497,2; CIL III 2925). The inhabitants ( Iadertini) fought with Caesar against Pompey (Bell. Alex. 42). I. probably became a Roman colonia ( colonia Iulia; earlier documented as a conventus civium Romanorum) under Caesar. Traces of centuriatio…

Iaitia

(28 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἰαιτία; Iaitía). Town in Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,10,4; 23,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. I.; cf. HN 148), probably identical to  Ietae. Falco, Giulia (Athens)

Ialemus

(96 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἰάλεμος; Iálemos). Son of  Apollo and the Muse  Calliope, thus the brother of several mythical singers:  Hymenaus,  Linus,  Orpheus (schol. Eur. Rhes. 985). Just as Hymenaus is a personification of the wedding song and Linus of the dirge, so I. is the personification of those dirges that, poetically, are called iálemoi. The myth explains this either with I.'s early death which gives cause for lament (as for Linus) (Pind. fr. 139,8), or with I.'s invention of the dirge. He is occasionally identified with Linus (Schol. Eur. Or. 1390). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Iallius

(99 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] M.I.M. f. Volt(inia tribu) Bassus Fabius Valerianus. Senator, who originated from Alba Helviorum in Narbonensis. In AD 156-159 he was in charge of Pannonia inferior as praetorian governor (AE 1976, 542; RMD II 102; 103). Cos. suff. shortly thereafter; curator operum publicorum in 161; consular governor of Moesia inferior; then comes Augustorum during the Parthian War. At the end of his career he was consular governor of Pannonia superior, where he made peace with invading Germanic tribes (Cass. Dio 71,3,1; PIR2 J 4). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Kolb, Bauver…

Ialmenus

(87 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάλμενος; Iálmenos). Son of  Ares and  Astyoche. Along with his twin brother  Ascalaphus [2], he led the Minyan contingent at Troy (Hom. Il. 2, 511), and is therefore also mentioned as a suitor of  Helen (Apollod. 3,130). After the capture of Troy, he makes his home in the Crimean region with Minyan settlers (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 143; Str. 9,2,42). Like his brother, I. was probably a figure of pre-Iliadic myth. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, 1960, 70f. Kamptz, 252.

Ialysus

(372 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Persian Wars | Delian League (Ἰάλυσος; Iálysos). City on the north coast of the island of Rhodes; with  Lindus and  Camirus one of the three ancient cities of Rhodes. Situated c. 15 km south-west of Rhodes city, on the western slope of the 267 m-high mountain Filerimos (ancient name Achaía, Diod. Sic. 5,57,6; Ath. 8,360e), which functions as the acropolis of I. Settlement and necropolis from the Mycenaean period at the present-day village of Trianda. …

Iambe

(142 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάμβη; Iámbē). Maid in the house of  Celeus, where  Demeter, mourning her abducted daughter Persephone, accepts nothing but a simple chair, which I. offers to her (H. Hom. 2,192-197; reverse ritual related to thrónōsis, placing the initiant on a foot stool [1]). I. makes Demeter laugh with her cheeky jokes and provocative insults, thus improving her mood (H. Hom. 2,202-204, cf. SH 680,51ff.). This reflects the cultic practice of aischrologia (ritual insult). Evidently, there is a connection between the mythical figure of I. and the literary genre …

Iambia

(115 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰαμβία κώμη; Iambía kṓmē). Port town on the western coast of the Arabian peninsula, according to Ptolemy belonging to the territory of the Arsae (Ἄρσαι, Ptol. 6,7,3). I. is probably also identical with the island of Iambe, which, according to Plin. HN 6,168, lies off Berenice but is otherwise unknown. While the history of I. during the Hellenistic and Roman-Byzantine periods is largely unknown, the town achieved some importance under the Arab name of Yanbuʿ al-baḥr as the port of Medina (Ἰάθριππα; láthrippa/Yaṯrib), especially for pilgrim traffic. …

Iambics

(5 words)

see  Metre;  Iambographers

Iambic shortening

(5 words)

see  Phonetics

Iamblichus

(2,195 words)

Author(s): Gundel, Hans Georg (Gießen) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
(Ἰάμβλιχος; Iámblichos). Personal name (regarding the form cf. [1]). [German version] [1] Syro-Arab ruler, middle of 1st cent. BC I., Syro-Arab ruler, probably identical with Phylarchus I of Arethusa and Emesa who was mentioned by Cicero (Fam. 15,1; 2). He was executed in 31 BC outside Actium in the army of Anthony. In AD 20 Augustus returned Emesa to his homonymous son (Cass. Dio 50,13,7; 51,2,2; cf. Str. 16,753). Gundel, Hans Georg (Gießen) Bibliography 1 Schürer 1, 234f., 25. [German version] [2] Neoplatonist, 3rd/4th cent. AD Neoplatonist of the 3rd/4th cents. AD Brisson, Luc (Pa…

Iambographers

(1,272 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] A. Archaic and Classical Poets Among archaic Greek poets,  Archilochus,  Semonides and  Hipponax were regarded as the earliest authors of iambics ( íamboi), followed by  Ananius and, later in the 5th century BC,  Hermippus [1]. The term iambopoioí is found not before the Byzantine lexica. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] B. Term and metrics ί̓αμβος ( íambos) seems, although its earliest use (Archil. 215 W) is not decisive, initially to identify a type of poem defined by content (cf. Pl. Leg. 935e) rather than by metre (cf. Hdt. 1…

Iambulus

(277 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] (Ἰαμβοῦλος; Iamboûlos). In his library of world history (2,55-60),  Diodorus [18] Siculus mentions a merchant I., who, while on a voyage in Arabia, was carried off to a blissful island by Ethiopians, who thereby practised a purification ritual that was more than 20 generations old. The description of the island (which might be Sri Lanka) contains all the characteristics of an ancient utopia: an ideal climate, unusual fertility and a communist social structure. There are paradoxical…

Iamus

(194 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἴαμος; Íamos). Forefather of the Elean family of seers named Iamidai, who were active in Olympia alongside the  Clytidae (Hdt. 9,33) up to the fall of the sanctuary. They usually read prophecies in the flames of the sacrificial fire (cf. Pind. Ol. 8,2f.), but Thrasybulus invented divination from the intestines of dogs (Paus. 6,2,4). Their prophecies were also expressed in detailed oracles ( lógia) (Paus. 3,11,6). They were closely connected to Sparta (where the tomb of the Iamidai was located, Paus. 3,12,8), although their service to Messene…

Ianiculum

(104 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] One of the seven hills of Rome ( Roma), located on the right bank of the Tiber and already during the Republican period connected to the  Campus Martius by four bridges. Because of its military significance, the I. was incorporated into the ager Romanus at an early date (Cass. Dio 37,27,3 - 37,28,1). The name I. probably refers to a cultic site of Ianus. In the later Republic this hill, which was traversed by the via Aurelia was the location of several large  gardens ( horti Agrippinae; horti Caesaris). Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography P. Liverani, s.v. I., LTUR …

Ianira

(28 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάνειρα; Iáneira, ‘virility’).  Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,47; Apollod. 1,12) or  Oceanid (Hes. Theog. 356), one of Persephone's playmates (H. Hom. 2,421). Zingg, Reto (Basle)
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