Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Naarda

(113 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Νάαρδα/ Náarda, also Νέερδα/ Néerda). Mesopotamian town on the Euphrates close to Sippar, exact location as yet unknown (Arr. FGrH 2,861 fr. 42; Ptol. Geog. 5,17,10); mainly inhabited by Jews, the Nehardea of the Talmud. The brothers Anilaeus and Asinaeus established their own Jewish rule in Mesopotamia from N. c. AD 20-35 (Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,9,1ff.). In the 2nd/3rd cents., N. was the seat of an important Jewish academy, whose most important representative was Samuel. N. was destroyed (by Odaenathus?) in AD 260, and gradually dwindled in importance. Kessler, Karlhein…

Naarmalcha

(171 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] Name of an Aramaic river or canal in central Babylonia, corresponding to Akkadian nār šarri, Greek Naarsárēs (Νααρσάρης, Ptol. 5,19,2; 6) and Latin Marses (Amm. Marc. 23,6,25) and glossed in Greek ( basíleios potamós etc., see Str. 16,1,27; Ptol. 5,17,5; Zos. 3,19,3) and Latin translation ( regium flumen etc., see Plin HN 5,21,90; Amm. Marc. 24,2,7) as ‘Royal River’. Several canals of this name are known from Assyriological sources. The various names are often confused by ancient authors. It is doubtful whether the N. mentione…

Naassenes

(321 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] The Gnostic collection of Hippolytus [2] contains a piece of writing by the Naassenes (Hippolytus, Refutatio 5,6-11), who are elsewhere known only to us from Theodoretus; he identifies them with the Ophites (PG 80, 784) and Barbelo-Gnostics (PG 83, 361). It is not certain that the name was used by the group itself; according to Hippolytus, its members referred to themselves as ‘Gnostics’. The name derives from the Hebrew naḥaš, ‘serpent’: to the Naassenes, the source of gnosis was the serpent of Eden. The serpent, however, does not play a revelator…

Nababes

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribe in Mauretania Caesariensis. According to Plin HN 5,21, the river ( flumen) Usar (modern Oued Isser?) separated the gens of the N. from the gens of the Macurebi. In Tab. Peut. 2,2-4, the N. are placed to the south of the Mons Ferratus, the Djurdjura mountain range (Kabylei). They probably belonged to the confederacy of the Quinquegentiani. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 65f.  F. Windberg, s.v. Nabades, RE 16, 1449f.

Nabalia

(181 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] River in the territory of the Batavi; in AD 70, a bridge over the N. was broken, so that Julius [II 43] Civilis and Petilius Cerialis could each stand on his respective side and negotiate at an appropriate distance (Tac. Hist. 5,26,1). The N. may be identifiable with the modern Lee between Lienden and Maurik in the Netherlands [3]. However, Tacitus may not have meant the river flowing between the warring pair at all, but may be referring only to a navalis (i.e. pons, ‘pontoon bridge’; [2]). It is also conceivable that Tacitus' N. is to be understood as the locat…

Nabarzanes

(70 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ναβαρζάνης; Nabarzánēs). The chilíarchos (commander) of the royal cavalry of king Darius [3] III.; described in admiring terms by Curt. (esp. 5,9-10). Nabarzanes was the only Persian commander who was successful at the battle of Issus and was with Bessos at the time of king Darius' murder. He later surrendered to Alexander [4] the Great in Hyrcania (Arr. Anab. 3,23,3f.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, no. 543.

Nabataean

(206 words)

Author(s): Müller-Kessler, Christa (Emskirchen)
[German version] Aramaic written language of an Arabic-speaking tribe, the Nabataeans (Arabic onomastikon). Nabataean belongs to the west-central branch of Aramaic, and is preserved in memorial, tomb, votive and building inscriptions, graffiti, coin legends and one charm, all dating from the 2nd cent. BC to the 4th cent. AD. Finds have been made at Gaza, Elusa, Mampsis, Nessana, Oboda, Petra, Transjordan with Amman and Gerasa, the Ḥaurān and Boṣra, the Arabian peninsula (Ḥiǧāẓ) with al-Ḥiǧr/Madāi…

Nabataei, Nabataeans

(399 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ναβαταῖοι/ Nabataȋoi, inscription NBṬW), Arabian people in north-west Arabia, with Petra as their capital, probably originating in the Ḥiǧāẓ. Their relationship with the Aramaic tribe of the Nabaiati (7th cent. BC [1]), attested in cuneiform texts, and the Neḇāyôṯ of the Bible (Gn 25:13; 28:9; 39:3; Is. 20:7) is disputed. According to Diod. Sic. (2.48f.; 19.94-100), Antigonus [1] I undertook two unsuccessful expeditions to the ‘land of the Arabs who are called Nabataeans’ in 312 BC. They appear at this time as tradin…

Nabdalsa

(91 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] Wealthy Numidian noble and military commander under Iugurtha, against whom he plotted in 108 BC together with Jugurtha's confidant Bolmicar [4]. When the plot was discovered in documents, N. betrayed the conspirators to save himself; Jugurtha's acceptance of N.'s pleas was feigned, and he had most of the conspirators executed (Sall. Iug. 70,1-73,1). Numidae, Numidia Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) Bibliography M.R.-Alföldi, Die Geschichte des numidischen Königreiches und seiner Nachfolger, in: H.G. Horn, C.B. Rüger (ed.), Die Numider, 1979, 43-74  C. Saumag…

Nabedes

(64 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ναβέδης; Nabédēs). Military commander under Chosroes [5] I in the Persian War of Iustinianus [1]. Initially commandant of Nisibis (Procop. Pers. 2,18,9; 19; Procop. Anecdota 2,28), he defeated the Romans in AD 543 at Anglon in the region of Dvin/Persarmenia (Procop. Pers. 2,25,5-35) and in 550 undertook an invasion of Lazica (Procop. Goth. 4,9,6f.). PLRE 3, 909. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Nabis

(677 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νάβις; Nábis). Son of Damaratus; controversial representative of the last phase of the Spartan reform movement. After the death of Machanidas (207 BC), N. - apparently a member of a branch of the Eurypontidae - first became regent of Sparta. He consolidated his power by removing the young king Pelops (Diod. Sic. 27,1) and then took the title of king himself (Syll.3 584). Polybius (13,6,1-7,11) and later authors depict N. as a cruel tyrant (Diod. Sic. 27,1; Liv. 33,44,8; 34,32,3; Plut. Titus 13; Paus. 4,29,10). At first, his rule was suppor…

Nabonadius

(4 words)

see Nabonidus

Nabonassar

(165 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] (Ναβονάσσαρος; Nabonássaros). Graecised form of the Babylonian royal name Nabû-nāṣir. N.'s reign (747-734 BC) is not marked by any spectacular events. His fame is due to the fact that Claudius Ptolemaeus (Cens. 21,9) chose the beginning of the first year of N.'s reign (calculated to 26  February 747 BC) as the epoch for his astronomical calculations (‘Nabonassar Era’; in the ‘Ptolemaic Canon’, a continuous list of the kings ruling over Babylonia until Alexander [4] the Great, then …

Nabonidus

(408 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] Last king of the Neo-Babylonian Chaldaean Dynasty (555-539 BC; Chaldaei), Akkadian Nabû-nāid; Greek Ναβόννεδος ( Nabónnedos) or  Ναβονάδιος ( Nabonádios; also in the Ptolemaic canon; Kings' lists; [5. 98]). In Hdt. 1,74,17; 77,12; 188,4 Labynetus probably refers to N. After the murder of his predecessor Lābāši-Marduk (son of Neriglissar), N. was elevated to the throne at an advanced age. He was neither a member of the previous royal house nor of one of the economically influential families of Babylon. According to th…

Nabopolassar

(212 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] First king (625-605 BC) of the neo-Babylonian (Chaldaean) dynasty (Chaldaei), Akkadian Nabû-apla-uṣur, graecised as Ναβουπολάσσαρος ( Naboupolássaros). N., according to Berossus, formerly an Assyrian general (according to a cuneiform tablet there was also a king of the Sealand of the same name [2. 46 no. 107]), managed to exploit a power vacuum arising after the death of the king Kandalanu, and after prolonged fighting, ultimately conquered the whole of Babylonia. A chronicle [2. no. 2] indicates…

Nabû

(167 words)

Author(s): Richter, Thomas (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Akkadian Nabīum, Aramaic nbw/ nbwy, Greek Νάβου/ Nábou, Νέβου/ Nébou), derived from the common Semitic root nb in the sense of ‘announcer/authorised person’. God of writing and wisdom, documented from the Old Babylonian period, initially in Babylonia. From the Middle Babylonian period he was considered to be the son of Marduk. From the 1st millennium BC, in Babylonia Nanaja, in Assyria Tašmētu, was considered his wife. His significance and popularity ultimately surpassed even that of Marduk. I…

Naburianus

(93 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ναβουριανός; Nabourianós). According to Poseidonius (transmitted in Str. 16,1,6), N. was said to have been, with Cidenas and Sudines, one of the Babylonian scholars whose accurate observations of the lunar cycle and positions of the sun were expanded by the Greeks into ‘System A’ and made the basis of mathematical astronomy. He is probably identical with a Nabû-rīmannu who presumably lived around 500 BC and whose name is found e.g. in the colophon of a Babylonian moon table. Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) Bibliography P. Schnabel, Berossos und die babylonisch-hel…

Nacolea

(360 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Wörrle, Michael (Munich)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Education / Culture (Νακόλεια; Nakóleia). City in northeastern Phrygia (Phryges; Str. 12,8,12: in Phrygia Epictetus; Ptol. 5,2,22: in Phrygia Megale) on the river Parthenius (modern river Seydi), modern Seyitgazi. The earliest evidence (Str. loc. cit.) is no later than the time of Augustus, historical notes are provided by Amm. Marc. 26,9,7-9 (defeat of Procopius in a battle with Valens at N. in AD 366) and Philostorgius in 138 (rebellion…

Nacone

(133 words)

Author(s): Salsano, Deborah (Catania)
[German version] (Νακόνη; Nakónē). Town in Sicily (Philistus FGrH 556 F 26; Suda s.v. Νακώνη; Nakṓnē), probably in the hinterland between Segesta and Entella, not identified with a specific locale (cf. coin finds). Before 400 BC it was autonomous, then conquered by Campanian mercenaries who settled there (coins: ob. ΚΑΜΠΑΝΩΝ/KAMPANŌN, rv. ΝΑΚΩΝΑΙΩΝ/NAKŌNAIŌN; HN 158f.). After Timoleon's victory in 339 BC, N. and Entella became autonomous again. Cf. also the third of nine bronze tablets from Entella that includ…

Naevius

(1,767 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name, perhaps derived from the praenomen Gnaivos ( Gnaeus, Cn.); popular etymology derives it from naevus, ‘birthmark’ (Arnob. 3,14). The antiquity of this name in Rome, which is also widely attested in inscriptions, is suggested by the name of porta Naevia in the Servian city wall (Varro, Ling. 5,163; cf. Liv. 2,11,8). However, the family emerged politically only in the 2nd cent. BC. The most important bearer of the name is the poet N. [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] N., Cn. Dramatist and epic poet, 3rd cent. BC Roman drama…
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