Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(85 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Νατίσων; Natís ōn). River in Venetia (Ptol. 3,1,26) which rises in the Alpes Carnicae, flows below Forum Iulium (present-day Cividale), reaches the Turrus from the right (Plin. HN 3,126) and flows into the Laguna Veneta near Aquileia [1]. It protected the east walls of Aquileia and formed a canal port there (Str. 5,1,8). At the estuary the river is nowadays called Natissa (as in Iord. Get. 42), but Natisone and Torre in the interior regions. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 229.

Natural catastrophes

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] For the whole of antiquity there are numerous reports of natural catastrophes (NC). Especially in the eastern Mediterranean, but also in Italy, tectonic conditions resulted in an extraordinary susceptibility for frequently disastrous seismic activity (earthquakes and resulting tsunami, volcanic eruptions). The ancient perception was that phenomena such as storms, epidemics, rains of stones, comets (Cic. Nat. deor. 2,14) and solar and lunar eclipses (e.g. Plut. Nicias 23; Eclipses) were also in the category of NC. Earthquakes (cf. map) …

Naturales liberi

(370 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (also known as liberi naturales ). In Late Antiquity, ‘natural children’ were the issue of an illegitimate union ( concubinatus ). Compared to other children of illegitimate descent ( spurius ), they were privileged in many respects. Thus, the possibility of a legitimation, that is the eventual acquisition of the legal status of legitimate offspring ( legitimi), existed only for NL. In what was probably initially intended as an incentive to contract marriage with one's partner in concubinage, the parents' marriage brought about the ful…

Natural law

(8 words)

see Aequitas; Ius (C.2); Justice/Right

Natural Law

(3,710 words)

Author(s): Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG)
Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG) [German version] A. General (CT) Natural law (NL) ( ius naturae, ius naturale) is the measure, corrective, reason for the validity and permanent critique of positive law. It juxtaposes benchmarks derived from nature and the divine order for all creatures or rational beings with the universal behavioural rules imposed by rulers or the state. It constitutes the discrepancy between the actual state of the law or the constitution on the one hand and the ideal …

Natural philosophy

(2,079 words)

Author(s): Blum, Paul Richard

Nature, Natural philosophy

(3,656 words)

Author(s): Brisson, Luc (Paris)
I. Greece [German version] A. Terminology In ancient Greek, the term phýsis (φύσις, ‘nature’) is a nomen actionis derived from the root * bhu


(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)


(88 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ναύβολος; Naúbolos). [German version] …


(254 words)

Author(s): Speyer, Wolfgang (Salzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] From Syracuse, poet, member of Symmachus' circle of friends, 4th cent. AD…


(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ναυκλείδας/ Naukleídas). Spartiate, son of Polybiades; as an ephor, he accompanied king Pausanias to Athens in 403 BC, and supported his policy of reconciling the hostile sides in the civil war, in defiance of the intent of Lysander [1], who in revenge later accused him of debauchery (Xen. Hell. 2,4,35-36; Agatharchidas FGrH 86 F 11 = Athen. 12,550 d-e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)


(247 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Ναυκράτης; Naukrát ēs). [German version] [1] Of Erythrae, rhetor, 4th cent. BC Rhetor of the 4th cent. BC, of Erythrae [2] in Ionia, known almost solely by virtue of the fact that he was a student of Isocrates. He seems not only to have relied closely on his teacher linguistically and stylistically (Cic. De orat. 2,94), …


(398 words)

Author(s): Möller, Astrid (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Colonization | Education / Culture | Egypt (Ναύκρατις, äg. Niwt-krṯ: Wiedergabe des griech. Namens; Pr-mryt, ‘Hafenhaus’), h. Kom Geif im westl. Nildelta, lag in der Ant. am Ostufer des kanobischen Nilarms [5. 222; 6. 115f.]. Nach Hdt. 2,178 überließ Amasis [2] (570-526 v.Chr.) N. den Griechen, wohingegen arch. Funde eine griech. Präsenz seit ca. 625 v.Chr. …


(242 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ναυκύδης; Naukýdes). Bronze sculptor from Argos, son of Patrocles, teacher of Polyclitus and Alypus. The position of  N. in Polyclitus's family tree is a matter of dispute; two sculptors of the same name are also postulated. Daedalus [2] and Periclytus are recorded as the brothers of N., the latter also as ‘Polyclitus’. Pliny gives N.'s prime as  400-397 BC. N. created several  victor statues (after  448 BC). The most famous was a discobolus (discus thrower), which is commonly identified with the ‘discobolus at rest’ (Rom, VM), dating from c. 400 BC, which survives in copies. None of the other works described in written records survive, e.g. a gold-ivory statue of Hebe in the Heraeum in Argos, a statue of a sacrificer with a ram, which can be identified with a statue of Phrixus on the Athenian Acropolis, a bronze statue of the poet Erinna, and a Hermes. Regarding a statue of Hecate in Argos, N. is mentioned with the epithet ‘Mothonus’  (Paus. 2,22,7), a corruption which does not necessarily imply a homonymous sculptor.…


(345 words)

Author(s): Krampe, Christoph (Bochum)
[German version] Latin term for shipwreck, but also for shipwrecked goods (Ulp. Dig. 47,9,12). According to Roman lawyers, maritime danger (‘danger of shipwreck’, periculum maris) could exonerate for instance the borrower of a maritime loan ( f enus nauticum ) from repayment and the seafarer from liability of compensation ( receptum nautarum ) (Dig. 4,9,3,1). Ius naufragii used to indicate the widespread habit of appropriating flotsam. Different measures were taken against it: ban o…


(290 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύκληρος; naúklēros). A naúklēros was a ship-owner or also a captain conducting internal or overseas trade with his own or a leased ship (cf. Hdt. 1,5,2; 4,152,1; Xen. Oec. 8,12). He also offered other traders cargo space for sea transport; the

Naukraria, naukraros

(381 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ναυκραρία/ naukraría, ναύκραρος/ naúkraros). In ancient times, naukraría (pl. naukraríai) denoted a subdivision of the Athenian citizenry; naúkraros (pl. naúkraroi) were the leaders of such subdivisions. The meaning of the terms is controversial. Generally, the naúkraros was traditionally interpreted as ‘ship's captain’ (deriving from naûs, ‘ship’), but other derivations are proposed, e.g. from naós (‘temple’; [4. 56-72]; cf. [3. 153-175], [1. 11-16]) or from naíein (‘live’); [5. 10]). However, none of these more recent interpretations is …

Naulocha, Naulochus

(96 words)

Author(s): Salsano, Deborah (Catania)
[German version] (Ναύλοχοι/ Naúlochoi, Latin Naulocha, Naulochus). Anchorage on the north coast of Sicily between Mylae [2] and Messana, possibly near modern Spadafora (Imperial coins). In the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, there were probably links between N. and the Aeoli Insulae. N. was allied to Carthage in the 2nd Punic War (Sil. 14, 264). It was here, in 36 BC, that Agrippa defeated the fleet of S. Pompeius (Suet. Aug. 16,1; App. civ. 5,116-122). No epigraphical evidence. Salsano, Deborah (Catania) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 209  BT…
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