Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Reccared

(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king 586-601 AD, son of Leowigild; in 587 he brought about the conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism (Chron. min. 2,218). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography D. Claude, Adel, Kirche und Königtum im Westgotenreich, 1971, 77-91  PLRE 3, 1079 f.

Reception, Modes of

(4,675 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert (Tübingen) | Mohr, Hubert
Cancik, Hubert (Tübingen) [German version] A. The Conceptual Field (CT) The relationship of the Mediterranean (Ancient Oriental, Hellenistic, Roman, Etruscan, etc.) cultures to one another and of Post-Antiquity to Antiquity is described with a broad lexical field which expresses the various types of relationship, their intensity and the assessment of these influences more or less clearly. More organological (biomorphic) metaphors are ranged alongside more technical or economic ones: assimilation, heritage…

Receptio nominis

(160 words)

Author(s): Végh, Zoltán (Salzburg)
[German version] In Roman criminal proceedings ( quaestio procedure), the final acceptance of a complaint ( delatio nominis ) by the presiding member of the responsible quaestio , i.e. its 'entry' in the list of the proceedings pending with the court. If the accused confessed during the initial questioning by the responsible magistrate, the magistrate could immediately pronounce the punishment, the RN was thus superfluous. Only if the accused contested the charge did the RN occur and thus the preparatio…

Receptum

(498 words)

Author(s): Forgó, Nikolaus (Vienna)
[German version] (past participle of recipere , 'receive/take on', used as a noun) stands for 'commitment, promise, guarantee' in Roman law and is used for three different types of obligation business which have in common that they, as so-called pacta praetoria (praetorially recognized agreements; pactum D.) - like the promise to repay debt ( constitutum debiti, see below) - can be enforced under praetorial law. 1. Receptum arbitri ( receptum of the arbitrator): The commitment taken on here involves to make a decision in a dispute. If the arbiter refuses to honour his commitment, t…

Rechiarius

(88 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in Spain, AD 448-455, Catholic [2. 21-23], married a daughter of the Visigothic king Theodericus I, plundered northern Spain 448/9 (Chron. min. 2,25) and concluded temporary treaties with the Romans in 453 and 454 (Chron. min. 2,27). R.' expansionistic policies at the beginning of the reign of Theodericus II (453-466) brought him into conflict with the Visigoths. During this conflict, R. was killed in 455 (Chron. min. 2,29). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 935 2 R. Collins, Early Medieval Spain, 1983.

Rechimundus

(4 words)

see Remismundus

Reciperatio

(4 words)

see Recuperatores

Recipere

(4 words)

see Receptum

Reciprocity

(283 words)

Author(s): von Reden, Sitta (Bristol)
[German version] Reciprocity denotes a mechanism for exchange and social integration of particular importance in pre-market civilizations and based upon the normative obligation for an equalization of the given and received. The term had initially been used by ethnologists to describe exchange processes in primitive societies, and was later introduced by Karl Polanyi (1886-1964) into the debate about pre-industrial economies. Polanyi uses the term to describe the exchange principle between symmetr…

Recoining

(7 words)

see Small coins, shortage of

Reconstruction/Construction

(2,670 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Beat (Tübingen RWG)
Schweizer, Beat (Tübingen RWG) [German version] A. Archaeology and Reconstruction (CT) The constructional aspect of scholarly reconstruction was already being emphasized by Classical research theorists around 1900 [43; 44], but it was only with the advent of post-structural or postmodern theory that it became the focus of a historical discussion of the fundamentals [32] (Historiographical methods). Of the subject areas involved in the study of ancient history, it is especially in archaeology that reconstr…

Recreation

(3,120 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Karl-Wilhelm (Wuppertal)
[German version] A. The concept of leisure σχολή ( scholḗ; Lat. schola, scola) and otium express the state of being free from work and professional-societal duties. The etymology of the terms is unclear. They are neutral, non-judgmental terms without negative connotation in the sense of ‘laziness’ or ‘idleness’. Traditional translations, as the German Muße (leisure, ease), one-sidedly take up the vivid philosophical-ethical discussion of antiquity about the meaningful content of scholḗ or otium. According to Aristotle, work is associated with feelings of listlessness, scholḗ,

Recruits, training of

(845 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast)
[German version] I. Greece See Ephebeia. Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast) [German version] II. Rome "Look at the training of legions ( exercitatio legionum)  ... From this comes that courage in battle that makes them ready to face wounds". Cicero here expresses the traditional pride of Romans in their military training (Cic. Tusc. 2,37). In the early Republic rudimentary military training was probably carried on in the Campus Martius. Later, when citizens living further away from Rome were recruited, the Romans recognize…

Recta

(107 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The first time the Roman boy donned the toga virilis, he wore the ( tunica) recta as an undergarment; for the sons of equestrians and senators, it was furnished with the insignia of rank ( latus clavus). The long, white tunica with tight upper sleeves which the Roman bride donned on the eve of her wedding, which she slept in and wore on her wedding day was called recta or regilla (Plin. HN 8,194). Clothing; Toga Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography Blümner, PrAlt., 336, 350 f.  C. M. Wilson, The Clothing of the Ancient Romans, 1938, 138-145  D. Balsdon, Die Frau in der röm…

Recto/Verso

(218 words)

Author(s): Eleuteri, Paolo (Venice)
[German version] In papyrology the definition of recto ( r.) and verso ( v.) has not always been straightforward and uncontroversial. R. normally refers to the side of the papyrus on which the fibres run horizontally, in other words the inner side of the papyrus scroll which is thought to have been inscribed first; it is also the side on which the glued overlap ( kóllēsis) is visible. V. describes the outer side on which the fibres run vertically and which was not intended for writing. More recent papyrus editions indicate the fibre direction with {{rarr}} for …

Recuperatores

(277 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] From re-capere, literally 'to obtain back', for which purpose the recuperatores were originally appointed in support of Roman citizens within the framework of international legal relationships (Fest. 342 L.: reciperatio): they were meant to help the citizens get back what they had lost (probably above all in war) or had had illegally taken away from them. They then also came to a decision in the repetundae process ( repetundarum crimen ), in which it was a matter of the return of goods which the Roman magistrates had extorted in o…

Recusatio

(154 words)

Author(s): Schmitzer, Ulrich (Berlin)
[German version] (literally 'refusal'). With the 'rejection' of epic poetry on aesthetic grounds, first formulated in the Hellenistic era, its affirmative-panegyric function also became obsolete [1]. In Rome, the recusatio was first found in neoteric poetry (Neoteric poets; Catull. 68: [2. 87 f.]). Under the Principate of Augustus, the Hellenistic tradition [3] of recusatio, justified with artistic arguments and the modesty topos, obtained special significance (e.g. Verg. Ecl. 6; Hor. Sat. 2,1, [4]; Hor. Carm. 1,6 [2. 294]; Prop. 3,3). The attempt by Aug…

Redemptor

(114 words)

Author(s): Meissel, Franz-Stefan (Vienna)
[German version] (from redimere, 'repurchase') describes in Roman law: 1) a purchaser or acquirer, particularly a person, who buys claims and has the actions transferred to him ( cessio ) in order to collect when they are due and thus earn a profit (cf. Anastasius, Cod. Iust. 4,35,22,2); 2) one who purchases another's freedom (from slavery, captivity or punishment; cf. the Christian term redemptor for Jesus Christ as 'Redeemer'); 3) someone who gains something through bribery; 4) a tenant or lessee, especially a public lessee, who contracts with the state as the custodian ( manceps , condu…

Red-figured vase painting

(1,033 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA)
[German version] Red-figured vase painting was invented most likely by the Andocides Painter around 530 BC in Athens, where it continued to be used until near the end of the fourth century. The technique involved primarily drawing figures in outline on the orange-red Attic clay, then filling in the background with black gloss. Relief lines were employed for the more important contours, diluted gloss for the lesser ones and the drawing of the interior, with red and white used sparingly for other details. During the fifth century BC Attic red-figure was the most important fine-w…

Redistribution

(231 words)

Author(s): von Reden, Sitta (Bristol)
[German version] Redistribution is an asymmetrical exchange or distribution mechanism based on the importation of goods to a centre and their distribution. As an economic principle of supply and political principle of integration, it was important in pre-market economy societies. Although K. Polanyi (1886-1964), who used the term in his works on economic theory, appreciated that redistribution can function as an integrative principle in smaller groups such as institutionalized households or estate…
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