Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Regio Zeugitana

(120 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] The name of the northern part of the province Africa proconsularis (Africa 3., with map) before Diocletianus and, later, of Diocletianus' province Africa proconsularis (Diocletianus, with map); it derives from a native name (cf. mons Ziguensis, pagus Zeugius; Plin. HN 5,23; Mart. Cap. 6,669; Isid. Orig. 14,5,8; cf. Solin. 26,2; 27,1). The border ran from Tacatua (Takouch on Tunisia's north coast) southwards to the area south of Theveste and from there north-eastwards via Ammaedara, Althiburus and Abthugni to the region near Pupput (on Tunisia's east coast). Huß, We…

Regium

(701 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome (Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion, Lat. Regium), modern Reggio di Calabria. City on the Bruttian coast of the Fretum Siculum (Straits of Messina). Its strategic position and the lack of agriculturally useful territory committed the city to the lucrative control of the strait. Founded in the 2nd half of the 8th cent. BC shor…

Regium atrium

(5 words)

see Regia

Regium Lepidum

(199 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Natural catastrophes Celtic city halfway between Mutina and Parma [1] (Str. 5,1,6: Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion; Cic. Fam. 12,5,3: R. Lepidi; Tac. Hist. 2,50: R. Lepidum; Plin. HN 3,15; 115; Ptol. 3,1,46: Ῥήγιον Λεπίδιον/ Rhḗgion Lepídion; It. Ant. 99,3; 283,5; 287,7; Tab. Peut. 4,4), modern Reggio nell'Emilia. The Etrusci conquered RL in the early 6th cent. BC, occupying it thenceforward (inscription finds from Rubiera in the southeast of RL). In the 4th cent. BC, RL developed in…

Regni

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Regini). Celtic tribe, who settled in the area of Hampshire and West Sussex and was part of the Kingdom of Commius (mid 1st cent. BC) and of Cogidubnus (one cent. later). The main city was Noviomagus (present-day Chichester), home to a temple of Neptune and Minerva in the 1st cent. AD [1. 91]. Located near Noviomagus and 1,6 km west of Chichester was the estate of Fishbourne, probably a governor's residence from the Flavian Period (columns, mosaics, wall paintings) [2]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions of…

Regnum Bosporanum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
The 'Bosporan kingdom' on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), the heart of which was the Kerč peninsula on the so-called Cimmerian Bosporus [2], called Kimmerikòs Bósporos or simply Bósporos (Diod. Sic. 12,36; 20,22). Cf. the two maps below. [German version] I. The founding of the kingdom The Greek cities on the straits of Kerč joined together c. 480 BC under the leadership of Panticapaeum, probably originally as a protective alliance against the native Scythians. The first dynasty was the Archaeanactids, whose founder Archaeanax proba…

Regnum Tolosanum

(5 words)

see Tolosa

Regula

(110 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (Lat. 'slat', 'bar', or 'guideline'). Architectural technical term used in Vitr. De arch. 4,3,4 et alibi to refer to a slat with guttae on the epistylion (architrave) of a building of Doric structure. In width, the regula corresponds to the triglyphos and forms its lower end which structurally belongs to the architrave (and not to the frieze). Furthermore, the regula corresponds to the blocks of the geison that are resting on the frieze. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography D. Mertens, Der Tempel von Segesta und die dorische Tempelbaukunst des griechisc…

Regula Magistri

(235 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg)
[German version] ('Rule of the Master'). Latin monastic rule from the early 6th cent. by an unknown author, referred to as 'Master'. It probably originated in Italy, although it is also claimed that the RM comes from southern Gaul; the oldest MS is from Italy (Paris, Latinus 12205, about 600). As the most comprehensive monastic rule, it is a very important source of information on the spirituality and lifestyle of monasticism in late antiquity. In the mid-20th cent. it became a central focus of sc…

Regulus

(46 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cogn. (diminutive of rex, 'king'), found in the families of the Atilii (Atilius [I 17-23]) and Livineii (Livineius [I 1-2]) in the Republican Period; in the Imperial Period in other families as well. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316 f.

Reiectio

(63 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] Reiectio civitatis refers to the relinquishment of civil rights, reiectio iudicis to the right of the parties in a civil or criminal suit to reject a certain number of judges who would be considered for deciding the case according to the list of judges, . Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das römische Zivilprozeßrecht, 21996, 195, 198.

Reii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian tribe in Gallia Narbonensis in the area of the modern French department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence with capital Alebaece (Plin. HN 3,36, cf. Str. 4,6,4: Ἀλβίοικοι/ Albíoikoi; Caes. B Civ. 1,34,4; 56,2; 2,2,6: Albici; modern Riez) [1] at the foot of the hill of Saint-Maxime between Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus) and Aquae [III 5] Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence), constituted beginning in Augustus' time as colonia Iulia Augusta Apollinaris Reiorum, with quattuorviri, aediles, flamen Romae et Augusti and pontifex (cf. inscriptions CIL XII 351;…

Reindeer

(228 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( Rangifer tarandus, ὁ τάρανδος/ ho tárandos, Lat. tarand(r)us; parandrus: Solin. 30,25, there [?] shifted to Ethiopia!). The deer-like animal, dispersed as far as northern Italy and southern France during the Ice Age, was known to the Greeks only from the land of the Scythians on the basis of plausible reports in Theophr. fr. 172,2-3; Ps.-Aristot. Mir. 30,832b 7-16 and Aristot. fr. 317 (Antigonus Carystius 25), as well as Plin. HN 8,123-124. A fantastic motif recurring in these sources, such as in Solin. 30,25 (whose report on the pirander was adopted in the Middle …

Rei vindicatio

(691 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] ('laying claim to a thing', still ' Vindikation' in modern German legal usage). Originally the (ritual) laying of a staff on an object or a slave; in Roman law of the Principate, the claim of a Quiritarian owner (i.e. one in possession of Roman citizenship), not in possession, against the possessor for establishment of ownership, relinquishment and, where called for, pecuniary compensation. The RV superseded the ancient sacramental action in rem ( legis actio sacramento in rem) with its solemn rituals before the president of the court (king, consul, praet…

Relegatio

(191 words)

Author(s): Végh, Zoltán (Salzburg)
[German version] In Roman law, banishment, a milder form of exilium ; imposed in the Roman Republic, by the pater familias (head of the family) against members of his house, by the Senate and the magistrates; in the imperial era, also a status punishment without loss of honour for honestiores (members of the upper class). There was a variety of degrees: relegatio from 1/2 - 10 years and relegatio perpetua (permanent relegatio) on the mainland and relegatio in insulam (on an island). In addition, stay in a specific place could be forbidden. Violation of the banishment was …

Relics

(675 words)

Author(s): Warland, Rainer (Freiburg)
[German version] (Latin reliquiae, literally 'material remains' of mythical or holy objects or persons, particularly bones) gained increasing importance in pre-Christian as well as Christian antiquity, as material conveyors of supernatural power. The ancient cult of the dead (Dead, cult of the) and its beliefs saw contact with the deceased as linked to the tomb (Hero cult). Hellenistic cities revered their founding heroes in the midst of the city, hoping for protection and prosperity in return. In …

Relief

(3,221 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
I. Egypt and Ancient Near East [German version] A. Egypt Egypt had a long tradition of the two-dimensional portrayal of individual scenes and substantial compositions, initially as paintings on pottery, later as wall paintings and reliefs ( e.g. Narmer Palette, Proto-dynastic Period, c. 3100 BC). At the latest from the time of the Old Kingdom onwards, stone steles could be added to these, erected in association with the cult of the dead (dead, cult of), while the deeds of rulers were depicted in longer scenes on the walls of major build…

Relief ware

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam)
The plasticity of its raw material makes ceramics well suited to relief decorations, either as moulded shaping of the side of the pot itself or in the form of applied parts. RW is therefore represented in the pottery repertories of all periods. In the narrower sense, however, classical archaeology uses RW to denote luxury crockery of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods made in moulds. These wares represent early examples of ceramic mass production. [German version] I. Archaic relief ware In addition to Bronze Age antecedents, there is also a rough-sided RW, particularly of t…

Religion

(13,714 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Introduction [German version] A. Definition of the concept 'Religion', the substantive for describing the religious, denotes a system of common practices, individual ideas about faith, codified norms and examples of theological exegesis whose validity is derived chiefly from an authoritative principle or being. For the academic study of religion, conversely, the word is a purely heuristic category in which those practices, ideas, norms and theological constructs are examined historically; however, the…

Religion and Literature

(4,163 words)

Author(s): Bierl, Anton
Bierl, Anton [German version] A. Terms and Subject Matter (CT) The method of using religious materials for the comprehensive interpretation of literary texts is called 'religion and literature'. It emphasizes the productive interdependence of religious studies and literature, and addresses the question of how the subjects of religious studies can serve as a set of heuristic tools for understanding the structure and meaning of literary works in a historically appropriate way. Bierl, Anton [German version] B. Preconditions and Delimitations (CT) In contrast to the modern era,…
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