Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Religion, Critique of

(1,343 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[English version] The transition from pagan Antiquity to the Christian era is generally regarded as a process mostly characterized by continuity, typified by the persistence and conscious adoption of cultural traditions (chrêsis) and philosophical theories (especially of Platonism). This view, which in extra-scholarly contexts has become condensed into the shibboleth of the 'Christian West', does not do justice to the reception of Antiquity as a whole [15]. For, since the Early Modern period, this…

Religion, History of

(9,620 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) Neither Greek nor Latin had a word that precisely corresponds to the modern term 'religion' in its academic sense, whether to designate a specific cultural subsystem ('the religion of the Aztecs') or to refer to the anthropological constant of religion. This modern concept was a result of the Enlightenment and ethnological discoveries, and dates only to the Early Modern era. Ancient concepts focused on individual areas: the Greek thrēskeía, 'worship', and the Greek eusébeia refer only to ritual in the collective…

Religion, Sociology of

(9 words)

see Religion, History of

Remancipatio

(163 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law, the actus contrarius ('reversion') of the mancipatio (formal alienation). It served, for instance, for the return of objects given for fiduciary safekeeping ( fiducia ). The remancipatio was also a constituent act in the complex ceremonies of the emancipatio (release from the family group). Above all, however, it was an important element in divorce proceedings in the old manus marriage (cf. also Marriage III): if such a marriage was to be dissolved, the wife had to be released from the special authority of the husband. This remancipatio consisted of a ce…

Remi

(774 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica that settled in the Aisne, Vesle and Suippe valleys, with a heavy concentration in the middle Aisne valley, i.e. in the present-day départements of Marne and Ardennes, and in parts of Aisne and Meuse [1. 127 f.]. Encircled by forests, the territory of the R. nowhere bordered on neighbouring tribes. When the R. had become settled in this region, they drifted so far from their original 'nomadic mind-set' that they identified their concept of the boundless world around them now with th…

Remigius

(68 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From Mogontiacum (Mainz), rationarius of the mag. militum Silvanus in Gaul in AD 355, mag. officiorum of Valentinianus I c. 365-371; in this period he covered up the machinations of his brother-in-law Romanus in Africa. This and the usurpation of the Moor Firmus [3] led to his dismissal. In 373, when his misdeeds were discovered, R. hanged himself. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Remismundus

(95 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in AD 465-469. R. was probably at the court of the Visigoths in 461. After the death of Frumarius [1. 486 f.] he was elevated to king of all the Suebi in 465 (Chron. min. 2,33). He was son-at-arms of king Theoderic II of the Visigoths (Chron. min. 2,33). He is not identical [2. 667 f.] to the pretender Rechimundus (AD 459-461) [1. 936]. R. was still alive when Hydatius [2] ended his Chronicle (AD 468). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 938 2 D. Claude, Prosopographie des spanischen Suebenreichs, in: Francia 6, 1978, 647-676.

Remmius

(255 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Commander of the guard for the detained Parthian king Vonones I, whom he killed in AD 19 Commander of the guard for the Parthian king Vonones I, who was detained in Pompeiopolis, Cilicia; in AD 19, he killed the king at the river Pyramus during an escape (Tac. Ann. 2,68; cf. Suet. Tib. 49,2). He is probably identical to the C. R. Rufus mentioned in CIL V 2837 (= ILS 2022). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] R. Palaemon, Q. Roman teacher of grammar, 1st cent. Famous Roman teacher of grammar (cf. Juv. 6,451 ff.; 7,215 ff.) of the 1st cent. AD from V…

Remus

(5 words)

see Romulus [1]

Renaissance

(4,510 words)

Author(s): Tönnesmann, Andreas
Tönnesmann, Andreas [German version] A. Concept (CT) A Rinascita, a 'rebirth of the arts', was the term used by Giorgio Vasari in his biographies of Italian artists first published in 1550 [16]. He observed that the 'new' and 'good' art produced by his age had overcome a period of decline and - for the first time since Antiquity - had taken nature as its model. In a similar sense, Albrecht Dürer had earlier, in 1523, used the term Wiedererwachsung ( 'regrowth') in a similar sense [8]. Both terms embrace of necessity the exemplary nature of ancient art in contrast to other …

Renting

(5 words)

see Housing conditions

Renting and hiring

(1,070 words)

Author(s): Forgó, Nikolaus (Vienna) | Neumann, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] I. General Renting and hiring today are contracts concerning transfer of the use of a property or an object in return for payment and hence an enduring relationship of continuing obligation. The objects of the contract can be physical, non-consumable objects as well as rights. Such contracts are equally suited to the transfer for payment of movable and unmovable objects. Forgó, Nikolaus (Vienna) [German version] II. Ancient Orient and Egypt There is evidence of hiring, i.e. temporary use of persons and of movable objects (primarily ship and animal h…

Renuntiatio

(208 words)

Author(s): Meissel, Franz-Stefan (Vienna)
[German version] (literally 'announcement', 'revocation'). In Roman civil law, renuntiatio mostly indicates a unilateral declaration requiring acknowledgement, by which a right (e.g. a legacy) was waived or a legal relationship was ended. This includes the unilateral termination of an engagement or marriage, but especially the cancellation of a commission ( mandatum ) by the contractor (Paulus Dig. 17,1,22,11) and the dissolution of a society ( societas , cf. Paulus Dig. 17,2,65). The legitimacy of a renuntiatio depended on the type of contract and the precise agreemen…

Reparatus

(172 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Late-Roman senator, c. AD 527, praefectus urbis Romae Late-Roman senator, brother of Pope Vigilius, c. AD 527 praefectus urbis Romae under the Gothic king Athalaric. In 536, he was interned by the Goths in Ravenna. He fled to Liguria, and in 538, Belisarius appointed him praefectus praetorio (Italiae) in Mediolan(i)um [1] (Milan), where he was assassinated in 539 by the victorious Goths (Cassiod. Var. 9,7; Procop. Goth 1,26,1 f.; 2,12,34 f.; 21,40). Ostrogoths Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 939 f., 1323  Rubin 2, 109, 126 f.  Ch. Schäfer, Der wes…

Repetundarum crimen

(349 words)

Author(s): Simon, Dietrich (Jena)
[German version] literally 'the crime (of the appropriation) of (things and monies) to be restored', was the crime of extortion from subordinates and allies by Roman officials, and derived its name from the money and goods which had been extorted and had to be returned (cf. lex de pecuniis repetundis, Cic. Brut. 106). The earliest reference (Liv. 43.2) is a civil repetundae action before recuperatores , which the Senate permitted in 171 BC in favour of Spanish socii against several former governors. The repetundae action received legal foundation by the lex Calpurnia (149 BC) and a later le…

Replicatio

(119 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] As a counter-exception, the replicatio was the means in the Roman civil formula procedure for the claimant to rebut an exception ( exceptio ) of the respondent. The latter then had recourse to a duplicatio, the former then to a triplicatio, etc. All these objections were incorporated into the trial formula ( formula ) and thus constituted the dispute presentation debated and substantiated before the iudex . An example of the replicatio is shown in Dig. 44,2,9,1, where the claimant is enabled to reply to the objection of legal force to the effect that …

Reposianus

(221 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
[German version] Author of an hexameter poem transmitted in the Codex Salmasianus (Anth. Lat. 253 = 247 Shackleton Bailey), which contains a collection of poems put together at the beginning of the 6th cent. AD in Vandal northern Africa. The poem's theme is the love between Ares (Mars) and Aphrodite (Venus) (related in Hom. Od. 8), but the episode is given a moralizing turn. In the end, Venus plans to take revenge on the sun, who has tricked her: she inflames Helios with love (a motif from Ov. Met…

Repositorium

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally a Roman tray, then a stand or centrepiece used to arrange and serve food for a course (Petron. Sat. 33; 40; 49), introduced probably at the beginning of the 1st cent. BC as luxury tableware. The repositorium could have simple, round or rectangular form, but it could also have several levels and be of considerable height; it was also decorated with figures (Petron. Sat. 36), veneered with valuable woods and fitted with silver on the corners and edges (Plin. HN 33,146). Carrying away the repositorium while a guest was still drinking was considered a bad o…

Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Republic

(12,321 words)

Author(s): Maissen, Thomas
Maissen, Thomas [German version] A. Concept (CT) [86; 92; 104] Respublica, with its different forms in the various national languages, is a markedly ambiguous word. In 1807, the American Founding Father John Adams recorded that he had never understood what a republic was: “and I believe no other man ever did or ever will ”[1. 353]. The polysemy is also present in the Greek expression πολιτεία, understood by Aristotle as a) any constitution, b) unalloyed, good rule by the many, c) a mixed constitution comp…
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