Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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S.

(125 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman forenames Sextus and Spurius (also Sp.). S stands also for senatus in the formula SPQR, as S.S. for the Senate's resolution ( S[enatus] S[ententia]) and as S.C. on coins that were minted on behalf of the Senate ( [ex] S[enatus] C[onsulto]; s enatus consultum ). Very often to be found on inscriptions instead of the possessive pronouns of the 3rd person suus, sua, suum (in all the oblique cases), such as S(ua)P(ecunia)P(osuit) ('built with one's own money'). On coins, frequently used within imperial propaganda for s alus ('health'), s ecuritas

Saalburg

(461 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman limes fort (Limes [III], with map) north of modern Bad Homburg, on a pass over the Taunus. The small redoubts A and B, generally associated with fortification measures undertaken under the emperor Domitian (AD 81-96) after the war with the Chatti (Chatti), have been hitherto successively regarded as the oldest installations [1; 2; 3; 4]. Redoubt A, with its entrance to the south, may possibly date from the reign of Vespasian (AD 69-79) as a marching or construction camp for sh…

Saalburg

(7 words)

see Limes; Hadrian's Wall

Sabacon

(191 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαβάκων/ Sabákōn). First king of the 25th (Nubian) dynasty, Egyptian Šbk­, brother and successor of Pi(anch)i (Pije). In the traditional chronology, his minimally 15-year reign is estimated at c. 716/5 to 702/1 BC. However, since a recently published Assyrian inscription indicates that his successor Sebichus was already king in 706 [1], S. must have ascended the throne in 720 at the latest. In the 2nd year of his reign, S. conquered Egypt and according to Manetho [1] had his adversary Bokchoris burnt ali…

Sabanum

(90 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A Roman coarse linen cloth, used to dry off and rub down the body after bathing (Apul. Met. 1,23, cf. Mart. 12,70) or to wrap around the body, in order to raise a sweat after a steam bath; a sabanum was also used to squeeze out honeycombs and to envelop food during the cooking process (Apicius 6,215; 239). Late Antiquity understood a sabanum to be a linen garment decorated with gold and precious stones (Ven. Fort. Vita S. Radegundis 9) or a coat. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Sabarcae

(97 words)

Author(s): Schwarz, Franz Ferdinand (Graz)
[German version] A people celebrated as fierce warriors (cf. Curt. 9,8,4; Diod. Sic. 17,102,2: Σαμβασταί/ Sambastaí) with a democratic government [2. 110; 3. 158; 4. 103, 176 ff.] and praised in Sanskrit and Pāli literature (Sanskrit Ambaṣṣa). They were settled south of the Malli at the confluence of the Acesines [2] and the Indus and were subjugated by Perdiccas [4] (Arr. Anab. 6,15,1: Ἀβαστανοί/ Abastanoí) in 325 BC. Schwarz, Franz Ferdinand (Graz) Bibliography 1 Berve, vol. 1, 271 2 A. S. Altekar, State and Government in Ancient India, 1958 3 R. C. Majumdar, Ancient India, 1…

Saba, Sabaei

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] The Sabaei (Σαβαῖοι / Sabaîoi; Lat. Sabaei) were a people in the ancient land and kingdom that is known from the local inscriptions as sb (Saba) and is situated in the area of modern Yemen in the south-west of the Arabian peninsula. S. is already attested in Assyrian sources, for instance in the annals of Tiglath-Pileser III, to whom the Sabaajja paid homage with gifts in about 730 BC, in the annals of Sargon II, where in 715 the Sabaean Itamra is mentioned as bringing tribute, and in an inscription of Sennacherib, according to which i…

Sabatinus Lacus

(168 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Lake in southern Etruria near Caere (Frontin. Aq. 71; Columella 7,16; Sil. Pun. 8,492: Sabatia stagna; Str. 5,2,9: λίμνη Σαβάτα/ límnē Sabáta), modern Lago di Bracciano. The eponymous city (Geogr. Rav. 4,36: Sabbatis) is probably identical to modern Bracciano and was a station on the road running north of the SL from Forum [IV 1] Clodii (modern San Liberato) via Aquae Apollinares Novae (modern Vicarello; thermae, Roman sanctuary) to Baccanae (modern Baccano; Tab. Peut. 5,3). The tribus Sabatina (Fest. 464 f.) was named after the SL, while the tribus Arnensis [1. 274]…

Sabazius

(1,057 words)

Author(s): Takacs, Sarolta A. (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Σαβάζιος/ Sabázios, Latin Sabazius). The variations Σαυάζιος ( Sauázios), Σαοουάζιος ( Saoouázios) and Σαάζιος ( Saázios) found in Phrygia and Thracia point to an original form Sawazis (or Savazis), while Σαββαθικός/ Sabbathikós may indicate confusion with the Hebrew šabbat or ṣebāōt [1. 1585-1587]. The theonym Sabas is found in a Phrygian graffito [2]. S. is first documented in literature in the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC (Aristoph. Av. 875 f.; Aristoph. Lys. 388-390; Aristot. Vesp. 8-10). Later literature (Clem. Al. Protrepti…

Sabbath

(537 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew šabbat; Greek σάββατον/ sábbaton; Lat. sabbata). Seventh day of the Jewish week and day of rest observed weekly; its origin is unclear (cf. suggestions of a connection with the Akkadian šapattu, the day of the full moon). It is likely that it developed in ancient Israel as an expression of Yahweh's prerogative, based on the commandment to let the land lie unplowed during the seventh year (Ex 23:10 f.). The Sabbath was explained in two ways in the Biblical tradition. In the version contained in the Deute…

Sabbatha

(144 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαββαθά/ Sabbathá: Peripl. m. r. 27; Σάββαθα/ Sábbatha: Ptol. 8,14,22; Sabota: Plin. HN 6,155 and 12,52; corruption Χαβάτανον/ Chabátanon and variant: Str. 16,4,2; inscription Šabwat; already in the Arabic geographers in the form Šabwa: Hamdānī, Ǧazīra Müller 87; 98; Yāqūt, Muǧam Wüstenfeld 3,257). Maepha was the southern, S. the northern capital of Ḥaḍramaut in southern Arabia. Important for trade in incense, S. was the seat of Īlazz II. Yaliṭ (= Ἐλέαζος/ Eléazos, Peripl. m. r. 27) c. AD 29. S. was probably destroyed c. 200 by Yadail Bayyin of Ḥaḍramaut,…

Sabbatius

(32 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σαββάτιος/ Sabbátios). Father of the emperor Iustinianus [1] I, Illyrian, mentioned only in passing in Procop. Arc. 12,18 and Theophanes p. 183,9 de Boor. PLRE 2, 966. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Sabe

(119 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] City in Arabia Felix (Σάβη/ Sábē: Ptol. 8,22,15). Unlocated city in the interior of  Arabia Felix. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Capital of Mapharitis in Arabia (Σάβη βασίλειον/ Sábē basíleion: Ptol. 6,7,42; Σάυη/ Sáuē: Peripl. m. r. 22; Save: Plin. HN 6,104; Šawwā, Šawwām: CIS 4,240,7; 314,14). Capital of  Mapharitis, in the hinterland of Muza, to the south of Taizz. At the time of the Periplous maris Erythraei it was the residence of a prince Χόλαιβος/ Chólaibos. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography L. Casson (ed.), Periplu…

Sabelli

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] S. is not, as Strabo's source ( cf.  Str. 5,4,12) implies, a diminutive of Sabini , but is derived from the same root as Samnites , and from the time of Varro onwards is a term for them. For the modern linguistic use of S., see Oscan-Umbrian. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. T. Salmon, Samnium and the Samnites, 1967.

Sabellic

(5 words)

see Italy, languages

Sabellius, Sabellianism

(208 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard (Mainz)
[German version] After having spent a number of years in Rome, the Christian theologian S. (perhaps originally from Libya) was excommunicated by bishop Callistus (217-222) because of his teachings on the nature of God. Little is known about the rest of his life. S. was a leading Modalist (Modalism). Like Noetus before him, he equated God the Father with God the Son in order to maintain monotheism (Monarchianism). It was probably only later on that the designation of God as Son-Father ( hyiopátōr) and the thesis that God acted in the history of salvation successively in the 'm…

Sabina

(303 words)

Author(s): Temporini - Gräfin Vitzthum, Hildegard (Tübingen)
[German version] Vibia S., born c. AD 85, daughter of Salonia Matidia [1] and L. Vibius Sabinus, sister of (Mindia) Matidia [2]. As granddaughter of the sister (Diva Augusta Marciana) of Traianus [1], married to P. Aelius Hadrianus [II], the grandson of Trajan's aunt, from c. 100 for dynastic reasons. Conferment of the title of Augusta at the latest by 128 (imperial coinage RIC II 386-390, 475-479), perhaps even in 119 (as in [3] and then [2]). She accompanied Hadrian on his journeys; we have certain evidence for a visit to the Colossus of…

Sabini

(1,539 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
(Σαβῖνοι/ Sabînoi). [German version] I. Origin Central Italian people of the Oscan-Umbrian language branch. Most ancient authors derived the name S. from a divine ancestor, Sabus/Sabinus ( Safinús in a South Picenian inscription, probably 5th cent. BC; Cato fr. 50; Gellius HRR fr. 10; Hyginus HRR fr. 9; Sil. Pun. 8,420-423). According to Varro ( apud Fest. 464; cf. Plin. HN. 3,108), S. was derived from σέβεσθαι/ sébesthai, ‘to worship’, because of their alleged piety. The current prevailing opinion is that S. is derived from the stem of the reflexive pronoun * se expanded by bh to * s-bh (> * S…

Sabiniani

(5 words)

see Law schools

Sabinianus

(321 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the Carthaginians Was proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the inhabitants of Carthage, but was shortly after defeated by the governor of Mauretania and delivered to Gordianus [3] III by his own followers (Zos. 1,17,1; SHA Gord. 23,4). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 1, 197. [German version] [2] see Vettius Sabinianus See Vettius Sabinianus. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Magister equitum per Orientem, 359-360 AD At a great age m agister equitum per Orientem in AD 359-360 under Constantius [2] II. Ac…
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