Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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T.

(20 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] As an abbreviation in names, T. stands for the Roman given name Titus. …

Tabae

(179 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τάβαι/ Tábai). City in southeastern Caria, in the south of the Plain of T. (Ταβηνὸν πεδίον/ Tabēnòn pedíon, cf. Str. 12,8,13) on a rocky elevation near modern Kale. From the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC onwards, T. had the constitution of a polis (before 269/8: [1. 321 no. 1]). In 189 BC T. capitulated to Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,13,11-13) and after 167 was a 'friend and ally' of Rome (IG XIV 695-696b). T.'s autonomy was confir…

Tabal

(46 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin)
[German version] Name of a region and a principality in the southeast of central Anatolia. On its political role in the late Hittite period see Asia Minor III.C.1. Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) …

Tabari

(153 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] Abū Ǧaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Ǧarīr al-Ṭabarī (AD 839-923). Significant Persian-Arab historian, lawyer and Koranic commentator. His 'Universal History' ( Taʾrīḫ) begins with a creation story; histories follow of Israel, ancient Persia and pre-Islamic Arabia. After an account of the life of Muhammad, T.'s chronicle is constructed annalistically and contains a detailed presentation of the Islamic campaigns of conquest and the periods o…

Tabella duplex

(6 words)

see Writing tablets

Tabellarius

(206 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Anne (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] In the Roman Empire, a tabellarius conveyed letters and written messages of all kinds ( tabellae) on behalf of private and public institutions and individuals. From the correspondence of Cicero in particular, we know of tabellarii of wealthy households and of public tax and duty contractors ( publicani ; [1. 21-27]). …

Tabelliones

(631 words)

Author(s): Gröschler, Peter
[German version] (Tabellions). Private professional document scribes, who were responsible for setting down Latin legal documents in writing, beginning in the Roman Imperial era (Notary; [1; 2]). Ulpian (Dig. 48,19,9,4) first mentions the tabelliones around the turn of the 3rd cent. AD as an established institution along with those who studied law ( iuris studiosi) and lawyers ( advocati). They were listed as their own trade on the Edictum [3] Diocletiani of 301 (CIL III p. 831, 7,41). The formulation of documents by literate and legally trained third parties reaches ba…

Taberna

(94 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Type of building Latin term for buildings, both urban and rural, used for storage, craft production, selling goods, offering drinks, meals and lodging, and also as living space. Storage economy; Workshop; Inn Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] [2] T. Frigida Road station in Etruria on the Via Aemilia Scauri between Pisae and Luna at the crossing over the Frigidus (modern Frigido), modern San Leonardo in Frigido. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Banti, Luni, 1937, 71  G. De Santis Alvisi, Questioni lunensi, in: Centro Studi Lunensi. …

Tabernaculum

(216 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] (derived from trabs, 'tree trunk', 'beam'; diminutive of taberna, 'hut', 'shop'). In the Roman military context, tabernaculum describes all forms of housing for soldiers (Cic. Brut. 37). Provisional shelters could be built from a variety of materials, such as reeds and wood (Liv. 27,3,2-3; Frontin. Str. 4,1,14). Tents were made of leather (Liv. 23,18,5; Tac. Ann. 13,35,3; 14,38,1); in the winter, they were insulated against the cold with straw (Caes. B Gall. 8,5,2). The arrangement of the tents i…

Tabernae

(247 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Township in the territory of the Nemetes Township in the territory of the Nemetes on the Roman road on the west bank of the Rhenus [2] (It. Ant. 355; Amm. 16,2,12; Not. Dign. Occ. 41,16; Tab. Peut. 3,3), modern Rheinzabern. There is evidence  of brickworks of the legions of upper Germania from about AD 45 until c. AD 80; a fort, however, is not certain. After the withdrawal of the military brickworks, everyday and fine ceramics were made there for civilian needs. In about the middle of the 2nd cent. AD, a factory was developed for t…

Tabernaria

(4 words)

see Togata

Table

(447 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Latin mensa, also cartibum, cartibulum; Greek τράπεζα/ trápeza, τρίπους/ trípous or τετράπους/ tetrápous). Three forms of table are known from Greek and Roman Antiquity: rectangular with three or four legs, round with a central support or three legs, and oblong with one supports at each end; the last variant was primarily employed in gardens and was of marble, with the outer sides of the supports often decorated with reliefs. The other forms of table were usually made of wood, but the feet c…

Table culture

(3,352 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris)
[German version] A. General observations and sources In the wider sense, table culture refers to all practices linked to nutrition, to concrete activities as well as their symbolic representations. This new comprehensive approach to ancient TC owes a lot to the advances in anthropology since Claude Levi-Strauss; anthropological research has revealed astonishing interconnections between the TCs of the societies under examination. The task is no longer merely to list the foods produced and consumed, to k…

Table manners

(11 words)

see Banquet; Cena; Crockery ; Cutlery; Table utensils

Tablet painting

(5 words)

see Painting

Tablettes Albertini

(117 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Archive of 53 (45 surviving) wooden tablets written in ink  from southern Numidia (between Capsa and Theveste), named after their publisher, E. Albertini: largely legal documents from the Vandal period (484-496 AD), predominantly sales of plots of land, providing important information on legal culture, language and above all the writing of the period. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography E. Albertini, Documents d'époque vandale découverts en Al…

Table utensils

(821 words)

Author(s): Baratte, François (Paris)
[German version] The succession of courses, the foods presented and the ways of serving them (with sauces of various kinds) made specially-designed TU indispensable at banquets in the Roman world. Social drinking posed similar demands, beverages being an important element in hospitality. TU varied according to region and period, and depended on the design of the table (development from triclinium to stibadium, cf. sigma ) and the seating plan. Our knowledge of TU lacks detail in spite of numerous sources of information, e.g. literary texts…

Tabnit

(4 words)

see Tennes

Taboo

(173 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[German version] (linguistic taboo; term taken from Polynesian). In Latin and Greek there is no equivalent technical term; the phenomenon can be observed in ancient texts, but is not explicitly addressed. Depending on various religious, social and societal circumstances, certain words are avoided in speech, especially for two reasons: 1) in the magical or religious spheres sacred, powerful, or dangerous things are not directly mentioned (that would be sacrilege, nefas) for fear that e.g. a god or an event (esp. death, dying) may be conjured up or that an object …
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