Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Waccho

(72 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (also Wacho, Waccho, Vaces). King of the  Langobardi; he killed his uncle Tato, expelled his cousin Ildichis and sought by marriage policies to make alliances with the Thuringi, the Gepidae and the Heruli. Allied with Byzantium, he refused in 539 AD to support  Witigis. V. died shortly afterwards. (Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 1,21;  Procop. Goth. 2,22,11-12). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography J. Jarnut, Geschichte der Langobarden, 1982, 20-22  PLRE 3, 1350.

Wages

(1,443 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Andreau, Jean (Paris) | Kuchenbuch, Ludolf (Hagen)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East There is evidence of wages as recompense for work done by labourers hired for limited periods in Mesopotamia from the mid 3rd millennium BC to the late Babylonian period (2nd half of 1st millennium BC), in Hittite Anatolia (2nd half of 2nd millennium BC) and in Egypt (from the Old Kingdom on). In Mesopotamia, the institutional households (Palace; Temple) of the Ur III period in particular (21st cent. BC) supplemented their own labour force (which received rations …

Wagnerism

(2,607 words)

Author(s): Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel
Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel [German version] A. The Image of Antiquity in Wagner's Works and Its Reception in European Wagnerism (CT) The movement known as Wagnerism has been an international phenomenon since the middle of the 19th cent. In addition to the influence that Richard Wagner’s operas have had on the development of music and the reflection of their themes in the visual arts, Wagnerism manifests itself principally in the literary reception of the composer’s theoretical-ideological writings. This reception also …

Wagon, Chariot

(556 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt As a single- or double-axled vehicle, wagons were used in the Ancient Orient as a means of transporting people, gods and objects whose weight or size excluded their being carried by people or animals. Wagons were used in battle, in cult and ritual, and for display, travel, transporting goods, and pleasure (e.g. some forms of Hunting). Signs in early writing (archaic texts from Uruk, end of the 4th millennium BC; Cuneiform script) show the first drawn vehicle…

Walagash, Walash

(5 words)

see Vologaeses

Waldalgesheim

(145 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts The tomb of a Celtic 'princess' from the second half of the 4th century BC was discovered in 1869 at W. (in the district of Mainz-Bingen); originally, it was probably covered by a large tumulus which has not survived. Of the rich surviving furnishing, ornate gold neck, arm and leg jewellery, parts of ornate belts, a Celtic bronze jug, a bronze bucket from Campania and parts of a two-wheeled war chariot are remarkable. The Celtic ornamentat…

Walid

(164 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] W. I Sixth Umayyad caliph (born AD 668, reigned 705-715; Umayyads A.), continued his father Abd-al-Malik's policy of Islamization. He had the church of Saint John standing on the site of the Temple of Hadad/Jupiter in Damascus (C.) converted into a mosque (Umayyad mosque; see Arabic-Islamic cultural sphere I. A.) and had the al-Aqṣā Mosque built in Jerusalem and the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina (Yaṯrib). Under his rule the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula (in 711) and of Cho…

Wall construction

(7 words)

see Masonry; Town planning

Wall Paintings

(21 words)

See Classical Archaeology III. Contextual Archaeology C. Pompeii as a Case in Point; AWI, vol. 12/2 s. v.

Wall paintings

(3,970 words)

Author(s): A.NU. | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Numerous Ancient Oriental temples, palaces and private residences were painted inside, but due to the a secco-technique, only traces of the paintings still remain. Each colour has its own symbolism. Red, the colour of life and strength, was used as early as the 10th millennium BC for painting the walls and floors of houses (e.g. Ain Mallaha, Israel). Clay or lime plaster served as the base [1; 2]. The oldest and best-preserved figural wall paintings (WP) are found in the houses of…

Walnut

(4 words)

see Iuglans

Waluburg

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βαλουβουργ; Baloubourg). Semnonian seer ('Sibyl'), mentioned on an AD 2nd-century óstrakon from Elephantine (in Egypt): Βαλουβουργ Σήνονι σιβύλλᾳ (SB III 6221). The inscription contains a list of people on the staff of the praefectus Aegypti ; W. was therefore in Roman service and may have been responsible for interpreting omens and soothsaying. Her name may trace back to Gothic *walus (pilgrim's/traveller's staff or magic wand). Other Germanic women seers probably also had political roles beyond their tribes, e.g. Ganna, a successor to Veled…

Wanax

(601 words)

Author(s): M.M.-B.
[German version] Mycenaean Greek term (cf. e.g. nom. sg. wa-na-ka = wanaks, dat. sg. wa-na-ka-te = wanaktei and adjective wa-na-ka-te-ro = wanakteros) for the 'king' (ruler, sovereign, highest dignitary) in Mycenaean petty kingdoms at the end of the 13th cent. BC, on Crete (Knossos), in the Argolid (Mycenae), in Messenia (Pylos [2] II) and in Boeotia (Thebes [2] II A). The Greeks (describing themselves as Ἕλληνες, 'Hellenes') presumably were one of the causes of the change from Early Helladic II to Early Helladic III c. 2500 BC by migrating into what was later named Greece aft…

War

(16 words)

see War, law of; War guilt, problem of; International law; Fortifications; Armies; Naval warfare

War

(2,961 words)

Author(s): Loreto, Luigi (Würzburg RWG)
Loreto, Luigi (Würzburg RWG) [German version] A. The Phenomenon of War and Scholarship (CT) Scholarly involvement with the concept of war can already be found in ancient historiography. For Tacitus (Hist. 4,74), there was an indissoluble link between war and the fate of peoples. Already before him, Thucydides and Polybius insistently sought the causes of particular wars and the grounds for success in war, although, for Polybius, the essential explanation for Rome’s conquest of the world lay in the peculiariti…

War, art of

(9 words)

see Military technology and engineering

War booty

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East In the ancient Near East, the procurement of WB was directed towards obtaining important raw materials (e.g. metals - Egypt: gold from Nubia, silver from Cilicia, copper from Cyprus (Middle Kingdom); Assyria: iron from Iran, silver from Cilicia; Cilices, Cilicia) and items required for further warfare (e.g. horses, chariots in Assyria, 1st millennium BC) or served to supply the royal court with luxury goods for purposes of prestige. WB must be distinguished from '…

Warburg Institute

(4,570 words)

Author(s): Bredekamp, Horst
Bredekamp, Horst [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg (Warburg Cultural Institute and Library, KBW) in Hamburg and its successor, the Warburg Institute in London (WIL), share as a policy their dedication to research into the ongoing influence of the Classical world. In contradistinction to attempts to use Classicism and the ancient world as models for education and intellectual development and, above all, to bind art securely to the canon of Classical fo…

War chariot

(855 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin) | Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In both the Ancient Orient and Egypt the WC was a single-axle open chariot with spoked wheels pulled by horses. WCs were predominantly made of wood and in some cases clad in metal. The first evidence of WCs is on 2nd millennium BC seal rolls in Anatolia, and then in Syria (Seals). Their origin is disputed. In particular Hittite texts record the military significance of WCs (battle of Qadesh in 1275 BC between Muwatalli II and Ramses [2] II). There is also ev…

War, consequences of

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] I. Greece The consequences of a war in Ancient Greece for individuals, cities or kingdoms depended on its duration and size, and a systematic or general assessment is thus not unproblematic. Several authors describe the terrible sight of a battlefield (Xen. Hell. 4,4,12; Xen. Ages. 2,14f.; Plut. Pelopidas 18,5; cf. Thuc. 7,84f.). During a hoplite battle in the classical period, on average 5% of the victors and 14% of the vanquished would fall [4]; in addition there would be the woun…
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