Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Rha

(112 words)

Author(s): Danoff, Christo (Sofia)
[German version] (Ῥᾶ/ Rhâ, Ptol. 5,8,6 ff.; 6,14,1; 4; Ra, Amm. Marc. 22,8,27 ff.; modern Volga). Name of Finnish origin; in Scythian and Greek, the river was called Oarus in the 6th cent. BC (Ὄαρος/ Óaros, Hdt. 4,123 f.). Early in time, the Greek geographers already had a vague knowledge of the R. They thought it flowed into the Maeotis. Around the turn of the 1st cent. AD, the R. became known to Roman geographers: Marinus [1] (and Ptolemy) drafted a surprisingly accurate cartographical picture of the river. The extensive Volga …

Rhabdophoroi

(88 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ῥαβδοφόροι/ rhabdophóroi, 'staff-bearers', also referred to as ῥαβδοῦχοι/ rhabdoûchoi, 'staff-holders'). A term applied to various officials who carried a staff of office, in particular to officials at contests and other festivals, whether judges (Plat. Prot. 338a 8) or assistants of the judges who enforced discipline (for Athens: Aristoph. Pax 734; for Olympia: Thuc. 5,50,4). In Roman contexts the Greek words rhabdophóroi and rhabdoûchoi are used of the lictores ( lictor ) who carried the fasces before holders of imperium (Pol. 5, 26,10). Rhodes, Peter J. (Du…

Rhadamanthys

(302 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich)
[German version] (Ῥαδάμανθυς; Rhadámanthys). Judge in the Underworld of Greek mythology (together with Minos and Aeacus; occasionally also Triptolemus: Pl. Ap. 41a 3 f.). R. was regarded as the king of Crete before the advent of the Greeks and ruler over the islands of the Aegean (Apollod. 3,6; Diod. Sic. 5,84). He was the son of Zeus and Europa, brother of Minos and Sarpedon (Hom. Il. 14,321 f.; Hes. fr. 140 f. M.-W.; Porph. De abstinentia 3,16 names Dike as his mother) [1]. R. was regarded as jus…

Rhadine and Leontichus

(169 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαδίνη, Λεόντιχος; Rhadínē, Leóntichos). Unfortunate pair of lovers in a Greek folk legend, which according to our main source, Str. 8,3,20, was treated by Stesichorus (PMGF Spur. 278 Davies). As the only discussion there is of παῖδες Σάμιοι/ paîdes Sámioi ('children of Samos'), we cannot decide with certainty where the plot is set. Strabo places the legend in Triphylian Samos, but Pausanias knows of a gravestone of the lovers- a place of pilgrimage for unhappy lovers - on the Ionian island of Samos, on the route from…

Rhaecelus

(106 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαίκηλος; Rhaíkēlos). According to Aristot. Ath. pol. 15,2, Peisistratus [4] and the Eretrieis (Eretria [1]) colonised a χωρίον/ chōríon ('spot') on the Thermaean Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) called R., which, on the basis of Lycoph. 1236 f., scholars have from time to time identified with Aenea. In fact, however, it is probably the name of a region in the western Anthemus, in which at the time the Eretrian colony of Dicaea came into being. There is no further mention of the place in a historical context. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography D. Viviers, Pisistratus' Settlem…

Rhagae

(241 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (ἡ Ῥάγα/ hē Rhága: Str. 11,13,6; ἡ Ῥάγη/ hē Rhágē: Tobit 6,10; Ῥάγοι/ Rhágoi: Tobit 1,14 et alibi; (αἱ) Ῥάγαι/ (hai) Rhágai: Str. 11,9,1; Arr. Anab. 3,20,2 etc.). City (and district with a large population) of eastern Media, today an expanse of ruins south of Tehran. In the district of (Old Persian) Ragā (Elamic Rakka, Babylonian Raga), Darius [1] I captured the Median rebel Fravarti (Phraortes [3]) in 521 ([3. DB II 70 ff.]). In the summer of 330, Alexander [4] the Great rested his troops in R. for five days while in pursuit of Dariu…

Rhamnus

(549 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμνοῦς; Rhamnoûs). Large Attic Paralia-Demos, phyle Aiantis, with eight (twelve) bouleutaí, in the northern section of the east coast of Attica (formerly Ovriokastro). The urban centre of Ῥαμνουσία/ Rhamnousía, strongly fortified during the 4th cent. BC and including a citadel from 413/2 BC [3. 77 f., 80 f.] for the garrison, first documented for 342/1 BC (SEG 43,71), lies on an isolated rocky plateau. Conquered in 295 BC by Demetrius [I 2] Poliorketes, R. soon fell to Athens again and was a base for the a…

Rhamphias

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμφίας; Rhamphías). Spartiate, father of Clearchus [2] (Thuc. 8,8,2). Member of the last Spartan delegation before the outbreak of the Peloponnesisan War (431 BC) that in Athens signaled a willingness for peace if the Athenians returned "independence to the Hellens" (Thuc. 1,139,3). R. was supposed to reinforce the army of Brasidas in the summer of 422 but in Thessaly he received news of his death and returned to Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Rhampsinitus

(216 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin)
[German version] (Ῥαμψίνιτος; Rhampsínitos). According to Hdt. 2,121 f., R. was an Egyptian ruler. In scholarship, he is mostly (however, without conclusive arguments) equated with Ramesses [3] III. He is said to have been the successor of Proteus and the predecessor of Cheops. R. may be identified with a Remphis, who is mentioned in Diod. Sic. 1,62,5. The latter part of the name could contain the element s Njt, 'son of Neith', and possibly it should be corrected to Psammsinit, i.e. Psammetichus, son of Neith. R. is said to have constructed the western gateways of the Temple…

Rhaphia

(151 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] (Ῥαφία/ Rhaphía, Egyptian Rpḥ, Akkadian Rapiḫu). First mentioned in Egyptian city lists of the 2nd millennium BC, to be found southeast of Gaza in Ḫirbat Bir Rafaḥ. The first dispute between the Assyrians and Egyptians took place here when Ḫanūnu of Gaza with Egyptian support unsuccessfully fought against Sargon [3] II in 720 BC. In 217 BC in R., Ptolemy [7] IV Philopator was victorious over Antiochus [5] III (Pol. 5,82-86; 3 Macc 1:4). The latter established Seleucid rule in 200 BC and in 193 BC through …

Rhapsodes

(749 words)

Author(s): Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(ῥαψῳδοί/ rhapsōidoí). Professional reciters of (as a rule epic) poetry. The profession emerged in Greece in the 8th cent. BC as a consequence of the transition from speech to writing as a medium for the transmission of information (Literacy/Orality). [German version] A. Meaning and connotation The first component of the word is the stem of the verb ῥάπτειν/ rháptein, 'sew' (cf. modern Greek ῥαπτο-μηχανή/ rhapto-mēchanḗ, 'sewing machine'); the second element the stem of the noun ᾠδή/ ōidḗ (< ἀοιδή/ aoidḗ), 'song', in the role of object effected. The meaning is thus: 'he wh…

Rhascuporis

(433 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Name variations: Ῥασκύπορις/ Rhaskýporis, Ῥα(ι,η)σκούπορις/ Rha(i,ē)skoúporis, Ῥασκούπολις/ Rhaskoúpolis; Latin Rhascypolis, Rhascupolis, R(h)ascipolis, R(h)escuporis, Raescuporis). Kings of the Sapaei dynasty in Thrace (cf. stemma 8 in PIR2 R, vol. 7.1, p. 59). [German version] [1] R. I. Thracian king, fought for Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BC He and his brother Rhascus succeeded their father Cotys [I 7] as rulers. In 48 BC R. fought at Pharsalus for Pompey [I 3] (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,3); however he was pardoned by Caesar due to the commendable…

Rhaucus

(146 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ῥαῦκος; Rhaûkos). Town in central Crete, c. 15 km southwest of Heracleum [1], present-day Agios Myron (named after a 3rd cent. bishop of R.), with Minoan remains in the surrounding area. The acropolis had been inhabited since the Late Mycenaean Period. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC, R. formed an alliance with Gortyn (Pol. 22,15,1) and in 166 BC it was the object of a combined military operation by Gortyn and Knossos (Pol. 31,1) [1. no. 4…

Rhea, Rheia

(196 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥέα/ Rhéa, Ῥέη/ Rhéē, Ῥεία/ Rheía, Ῥείη/ Rheíē). Greek goddess; daughter of Uranus and Gaia, sister and consort of her brother Kronos, and by him the mother of Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Hades, Poseidon and Hestia (Hes. Theog. 453-463). Kronos devours the children in order to avoid the danger of being deprived of his power by one of them. However R. hides Zeus in Crete and instead gives Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling bands. When Zeus is grown up he frees his brothers and sisters and with…

Rhea Silvia

(341 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (also Rea Silvia). Poetically also Ilía (for identity of both: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,76,3 i.a.). Mother of Romulus [1] and Remus. She is mentioned for the first time in Naevius (cf. Serv. Aen. 1,273; 6,777) and in Ennius (Ann. 29,34-50), apparently as the daughter of Aeneas [1]. Later sources, however, identify her as the daughter of Numitor and thereby move the founding of Rome several generations away from Aeneas and the ruin of Troy. The main version of the myth is essentially to be found in…

Rhebas

(153 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Ῥήβας/ Rhḗbas). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia, present-day Riva Deresi River in Bithynia (Apoll. Rhod. 2,343; 650; Tab. Peut. 9,2 written incorrectly as ad herbas), present-day Riva Deresi; it discharges on the north coast of the Bithynian peninsula east of where the Bosporus flows into the Pontos Euxeinos. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography IK 10,3, 1987, 141 f. [German version] [2] Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, present-day Gökcesu Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, which rises on Olympus [13], present-day Gökçesu. Its valle…

Rhecusporis

(313 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
Kings of the Regnum Bosporanum with the name Tiberius Julius R. (for name variations see Rhascypolis). [German version] [1] R. (II.) King of the Regnum Bosporanum from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 Son of Cotys [II 1] I., ruled from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 (IOSPE 2,52; 355; 358); he minted gold stateres and pursued a policy which was more independent of Rome PIR2 I 512; [1. 14-17, 93-103]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. (III.) King of Bosporus and the surrounding peoples AD 210/1- AD 226/7 Son of Ti. Julius Sauromates II., ruled as 'king of Bosporus and the surroun…

Rheneia

(330 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ῥήνεια/ Rhḗneia, Ῥήναια/ Rhḗnaia, Ῥήνη/ Rhḗnē; Latin Rhene, Plin. HN 4,67). An island of the Cyclades, consisting of two parts linked by a narrow isthmus (16 km2 in all, highest point 150 m). At its narrowest point R., present-day Megali Dilos, is 600 m from the neighbouring island of Delos to the east. The ancient polis of R. with its small territory lay on the west coast of the northern area. In 543 BC, Peisistratus [4] had graves transferred from Delos to R., inasfar as they were in sight of the temple of Apollo (Hdt. 1,64; Thuc. …

Rhenus

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] River in upper-Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna River in Upper Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna, right-hand feeding river of the Padus (Po), which rises in the Apennines above Pistoriae (Pistoia) and flows past Marzabotto through the region of Felsina (Bononia [1]). In Etruscan times it flowed into the Padus near Voghiera to the southeast of Ferrara, in Roman times somewhat more to the west. Nowadays it flows via an artificial canal directly into the Adriatic Sea. In…

Rhesis

(452 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ ῥῆσις/ hē rhêsis), generally 'speech' (Hom. Od. 21,291). As early as the 5th cent. BC, rhesis was a technical term for a speech in a play, especially in a tragedy (for the concept cf. Aristoph. Ach. 416, Nub. 1371, Vesp. 580, Ran. 151; Aristot. Poet. 1454a 31, 1456a 31). The length of a rhesis varies from c. 7 to over 100 verses (Eur. Ion 1122-1228, Phoen. 1090-1199, Bacch. 1043-1152). The most important function of rhḗseis in the context of the storyline is to supply information. The requisite details which are important for the storyline are frequen…
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