Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

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Subject: History

Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is an online resource that contains over 700 encyclopedia entries plus 250 peer-reviewed articles of transnational and global historical perspectives on significant topics of World War I. This collection includes Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, an unrivalled reference work that showcases the knowledge of experts from 15 countries and offers 26 additional essays on the major belligerents, wartime society and culture, diplomatic and military events, and the historiography of the Great War.

The 250 articles address not only the key issues from political, historical and cultural perspectives, but also engages with aspects of the war which have remained underexplored such as the neutrals, the role of women before, during and after the war, and memory. The chapters have been drawn from a select number of Brill publications that have been published in the last 15 years. Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is a unique digital library that will allow researchers to discover new perspectives and connections with the enhanced navigational tools provided.

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Hoeppner, Ernst von

(360 words)

Author(s): Pöhlmann, Markus
Hoeppner, Ernst von (January 14, 1860, Tonnin Island of Wolin [now in Poland] – September 27, 1922, Gross-Mockratz, Island of Rügen), German general. Educated in the cadet corps, in 1879 Hoeppner entered the 6th Regiment of Dragoons, and was appointed major general in 1912. At mobilization he became chief of the general staff of the Third Army, leading its operations during the Battle of the Frontiers and on the Marne, until the Army entered the positional war. On February 14, 1915, Hoeppner took o…

Hoffmann, Max

(436 words)

Author(s): Afflerbach, Holger
Hoffmann, Max (January 25, 1869, Homberg near Kassel – July 8, 1927, Bad Reichenhall), German general. The son of a judge, Hoffmann was first posted to the Russian section of the general staff in 1899 and permanently assigned in 1901. In 1904/1905 he was assigned as an observer to the Russo-Japanese War where he was with the Japanese army in Manchuria. He was promoted lieutenant colonel in 1914 and assigned to the staff of the Eighth Army under General von Prittwitz with the task of defending the …

Holtzendorff, Henning von

(337 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Holtzendorff, Henning von (January 9, 1853, Prenzlau – June 7, 1919, Jagow [Uckermark]), German grand admiral. Holtzendorff entered the navy in 1869, took part in the war of 1870/1871, and in 1900 served as commander of a capital ship during the Boxer Rebellion. After various commands on land (commander in chief of the navy, chief of staff of the Baltic Division, commander of the dockyard at Danzig [Gdańsk]), from 1906 to 1909 he was commander of the First Squadron, and in 1910 took command of the …

Home Front

(853 words)

Author(s): Baumeister, Martin
Home Front In today’s usage in English and German (German Heimatfront), in terms of the geography of the First World War, the term signifies the home territory, defined essentially as the civilian sphere, as opposed to the battle zone and in particular the military front. Used in this sense, with the rise since the 1970s of the social and economic history of war as a subject of study, and also the growing significance of approaches based on sexual and cultural history, it has achieved broad currency in th…

Hood, Sir Horace

(385 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Hood, Sir Horace (October 2, 1870, Tunbridge Wells – May 31, 1916, off the Skagerrak), British admiral. Hood entered the Royal Navy as a sea cadet in 1882. He took part in various imperial military operations: in 1897 on board a gunboat on the Nile, in the Boer War of 1898–1900, and in 1904 against the Dervishes in Somalia. Between 1910 and 1913 he commanded the Royal Naval College at Osborne. He then became captain of HMS Centurion, and in June 1914 Naval Secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. In October 1914 Hood took command of a flotilla of …

Hoover, Herbert Clark

(422 words)

Author(s): Waechter, Matthias
Hoover, Herbert Clark (August 10, 1874, West Branch IA – October 20, 1964, New York NY), American politician (1929–1933: president of the United States). In the United States, Hoover is remembered above all as the luckless president of the crisis years of 1929–1933, his presidency overshadowed by his successor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Against that background, his remarkable activities during the First World War have largely been forgotten. Hoover came from a simple Quaker family and studied mining engineering at Stanford University. His mining work took him all o…

House, Edward Mandell (“Colonel”)

(386 words)

Author(s): Showalter, Dennis E.
House, Edward Mandell (“Colonel”) (July 26, 1858, Houston – March 28, 1938, New York), American diplomat. This Texan businessman become politician played a major role in Woodrow Wilson’s first presidential campaign in 1911, mobilizing support for Wilson in the Democratic Party. Impressed by House’s human understanding and organizational ability, the President brought him increasingly into his confidence. During the First World War, House initially advocated American neutrality, while at the same dem…

How a Pro-German Minority Influenced Dutch Intellectual Debate During the Great War

(97 words)

Author(s): Tames, Ismee M.
Tames, Ismee M. - How a Pro-German Minority Influenced Dutch Intellectual Debate During the Great War Keywords: Netherlands | Politics | Intellectuals and the War | Germany | Culture ‛Uncovered Fields’ Jenny Macleod and Pierre Purseigle, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2004 e-ISBN: 9789047402596 DOI: 10.1163/9789047402596.016 © 2004 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Tames, Ismee M.

“How Much of an ‘Experience’ Do We Want the Public to Receive?”: Trench Reconstructions and Popular Images of the Great War

(8,939 words)

Author(s): Espley, Richard
Espley, Richard - “How Much of an ‘Experience’ Do We Want the Public to Receive?”: Trench Reconstructions and Popular Images of the Great War Keywords: 1990s memory culture | Britain | Distant Bridges | First World War | The Unknown Soldier ISFWWS-Keywords: Britain | Great Britain | Women and War | Literature | Legacy | Western Front | Soldiers and Combat | Culture | Society Abstract: An approach to addressing the shifts and changes in 1990s memory culture with regard to the First World War becomes manifest in the construction of a narrative framewo…

Hoyos, Alexander, Count

(277 words)

Author(s): Kronenbitter, Günther
Hoyos, Alexander, Count (May 13, 1876, Fiume – October 20, 1937, Schwertberg), Austro-Hungarian politician. Hoyos entered the Austro-Hungarian diplomatic service in 1900, and served on many missions overseas. In April 1912 he became chief assistant to the foreign minister Leopold Count Berchtold. After the assassination of heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, the question arose of sounding out Germany’s attitude to a possible Austro-Hungarian war against Serbia, a war that might pro…

Hugenberg, Alfred

(627 words)

Author(s): Hagenlücke, Heinz
Hugenberg, Alfred (June 19, 1865, Hannover – March 12, 1951, Kükenbruch [now part of Extertal, Kreis Lippe]), a leading figure in German commerce and industry, and politician. After studying law and economics from 1894 to 1899 Hugenberg worked for the Prussian Settlement Commission in Posen, where he distinguished himself as a rigorous champion of the Germanization policy. In 1890 he was one of the founding members of the extreme right-wing Pan-German League ( Alldeutscher Verband), for whom he subsequently remained active, if frequently behind the scenes. In 1909 Hugenberg becam…

Humanitarian Relief in Europe and the Analogue of War, 1914–1918

(8,031 words)

Author(s): Little, Branden
Little, Branden - Humanitarian Relief in Europe and the Analogue of War, 1914–1918 Keywords: American Red Cross (ARC) | Belgium | First World War | Humanitarian relief | Rockefeller Foundation (RF) | war in Europe ISFWWS-Keywords: The United States of America | Economy | Belgium | Medicine | Violence against civilians | International Relations during the War | Politics | Naval Warfare | Women and War Abstract: Foremost among the scores of Great War-era American organizations mobilized to deliver life-sustaining aid to Europe in the form of food, clot…

‘Humans Are Cheap and the Bread is Dear.’ Republican Portrayals of the War Experience in Weimar Germany

(12,271 words)

Author(s): Ther, Vanessa
Ther, Vanessa - ‘Humans Are Cheap and the Bread is Dear.’ Republican Portrayals of the War Experience in Weimar Germany Keywords: Germany's war experience | Weimar Republic ISFWWS-Keywords: Germany | Society | Legacy | Literature | Culture | Experience of combat | Home fronts | Masculinity Abstract: The Weimar Republic was essentially defined by Germany's war experience, positively as a reaction against further bloodshed and negatively as a refusal to admit the reality of defeat. This chapter discusses the depiction of partic…

Hussein bin Ali

(373 words)

Author(s): Neulen, Hans Werner
Hussein bin Ali (1853, Constantinople – June 4, 1931, Amman), king of the Hejaz. As the “Guardian of the Holy Places of Islam” and as the presumed contender for the title of Caliph, Hussein was held captive in Constantinople from 1891 to 1908 as a state prisoner of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. After the latter’s downfall, the Young Turks appointed Hussein Emir of Mecca in 1908. However, the Arab efforts to gain independence – which were also fuelled by fears that the Hejaz Railway might threaten Hussein’…

Hutier, Oskar von

(357 words)

Author(s): Pöhlmann, Markus
Hutier, Oskar von (August 27, 1857, Erfurt – December 5, 1934, Berlin), German general. Hutier was educated in a cadet school. He joined the Infantry Regiment No. 88 as a lieutenant in 1875. After a successful career in headquarters and field units, Hutier was appointed major-general in 1910 and chief quartermaster of the Great General Staff one year later. In 1912, having risen to the rank of lieutenant-general he assumed command of the 1st Guards Division, with which he went to war in 1914. As pa…

Huts, Demobilisation and the Quest for an Associational Life in Rural Communities in England after the Great War

(9,031 words)

Author(s): Grieves, Keith
Grieves, Keith - Huts, Demobilisation and the Quest for an Associational Life in Rural Communities in England after the Great War Keywords: Britain | Society | Soldiers and Combat | Legacy | Home fronts | Politics ‛Warfare and Belligerence’ Pierre Purseigle, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2005 e-ISBN: 9789047407362 DOI: 10.1163/9789047407362.010 © 2005 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Grieves, Keith