Encyclopaedia Islamica

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: Farhad Daftary and Wilferd Madelung

Encyclopaedia Islamica Online is based on the abridged and edited translation of the Persian Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. A unique feature of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Online lies in the attention given to Shiʿi Islam and its rich and diverse heritage. In addition to providing entries on important themes, subjects and personages in Islam generally, Encyclopaedia Islamica Online offers the Western reader an opportunity to appreciate the various dimensions of Shiʿi Islam, the Persian contribution to Islamic civilization, and the spiritual dimensions of the Islamic tradition.

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Faḍl Allāh Ḥurūfī Astarābādī 

(6,147 words)

Author(s): Alireza Zekavati Gharagozlou | Fatemeh Lajevardi
Faḍl Allāh Ḥurūfī Astarābādī (d. 796/1394), the founder of the Ḥurūfīs, a movement which emerged in Iran during the Tīmūrid period and was centred around his person and teachings. The Ḥurūfīs believed that the letters of the Arabo-Persian alphabet contained hidden meanings and that these meanings took primacy over the apparent meaning of the text when interpreting the Qurʾān. They also believed that human beings along with all other creatures were created from these letters and, therefore, that unde…
Date: 2017-11-09

al-Faḍl b. Shādhān

(2,778 words)

Author(s): Ahmad Pakatchi
al-Faḍl b. Shādhān, Abū Muḥammad al-Faḍl b. Shādhān b. Khalīl al-Azdī al-Nīsābūrī (d. 260/874) was an Imāmī traditionist, jurist and theologian. There is very little that can be known about his life in terms of precise details, and accounts regarding him contain contradictions that are somewhat difficult to resolve. It appears that he was originally from Nīsābūr in Khurāsān, but his nisba suggests his lineage is traceable to the Arab tribe of Azd. His father, Shādhān b. Khalīl, was also an important Imāmī traditionist (see al-Najāshī, 206; al-Ṭūsī, al-Īḍāḥ, pp. 46–48, 52 ). Accordi…
Date: 2017-11-09

Female circumcision

(6 words)

, see supplement.