Encyclopaedia Islamica

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: Farhad Daftary and Wilferd Madelung

Encyclopaedia Islamica Online is based on the abridged and edited translation of the Persian Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. A unique feature of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Online lies in the attention given to Shiʿi Islam and its rich and diverse heritage. In addition to providing entries on important themes, subjects and personages in Islam generally, Encyclopaedia Islamica Online offers the Western reader an opportunity to appreciate the various dimensions of Shiʿi Islam, the Persian contribution to Islamic civilization, and the spiritual dimensions of the Islamic tradition.

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[Prelims to the Encyclopaedia Islamica] Abbreviations and Frequently-Cited Works

(814 words)

Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, al-Aghānī = Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn, al-Aghānī (Beirut, 1407/1986) Ahlwardt, Verzeichniss = Verzeichniss der arabischen Handschriften der königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin, ed. W. Ahlwardt (Berlin, 1887–1899) Āqā Buzurg, al-Dharīʿa = Āqā Buzurg Ṭihrānī, Muḥammad, al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-Shīʿa, 26 vols. (Beirut, 1983) Āstān-i Quds, Bibliography = Fihrist-i alifbāʾī-yi kutub-i khaṭṭī-yi Kitābkhānah-yi Markazī-yi Āstān-i Quds-i Raḍawī, ed. Mohammad Asef Fikrat (Mashhad, 1369 Sh./1990) Āstān-i Quds, Fihrist = Fihrist-i kut…

[Prelims to the Encyclopaedia Islamica] Illustrations

(442 words)

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[Prelims to the Encyclopaedia Islamica] Introduction

(2,236 words)

The Islamic faith spread at a far greater speed than could ever have been anticipated, over an expanse of land stretching from the coast of the Atlantic Ocean across North Africa and the Iranian plateau to the threshold of China and India. This phenomenon resulted in the birth of a civilisation which encompassed a considerable portion of the creative and intellectual achievements of the human race to date. The extraordinary impact of Islam derived from a remarkable capacity to assimilate and fur…

[Prelims to the Encyclopaedia Islamica] List of Entries

(1,343 words)

Article Author (translator) Adab Azartash Azarnoosh (Suheyl Umar) Adam in Islam Faramarz Haj Manouchehri, with additions by Russell Harris and Stephen Hirtenstein (Farzin Negahban) ʿAdam Samad Movahhed (Keven Brown) Adhān and Iqāma Abdol-Amir Salim (Suheyl Umar) Ādharbāyjān Abbas Zaryab, revised by Stephen Hirtenstein (Matthew Melvin-Koushki) ʿAdī b. Ḥātim Ali Bahramian (Farzin Negahban) al-Adīb al-Naṭanzī Ali Mir-Ansari (Suheyl Umar) Adīb Ṣābir Tirmidhī Ali Mir-Ansari (Suheyl Umar) al-ʿĀḍid Sadeq Sajjadi and Farhad Daftary (Suheyl Umar) ʿĀdil-Shāhīs Huda Seyyed Husse…

[Prelims to the Encyclopaedia Islamica] System of transliteration of Arabic and Persian characters

(111 words)

Consonants ء ʾ ب b پ p ت t ث th ج j چ ch ح ḥ خ kh د d ذ dh ر r ز z ژ zh س s ش sh ص ṣ ض ḍ ط ṭ ظ ẓ ع ʿ غ gh ف f ق q ک k گ g ل l م m ن n ه h و w ی y Short Vowels ـَــ a ــُـ u ـِــ i Long Vowels ا ى ā و ū ي ī Diphthongs َـ و aw ـَ ي ay ة a; at (construct state) ال al- (article)