Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Bāʾ

(5 words)

[see hid̲j̲āʾ ].

Bāʾ

(5 words)

[see mawāzīn ].

(388 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(cf. bū ), genealogical term used in S. Arabia, especially among the sayyids and mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of Ḥaḍramawt, to form individual and (secondarily) collective proper names, e.g., Bā ʿAbbād, Bā ʿAlawī, Bā Faḍl, Bā Faḳīh, Bā Ḥasan, Bā Ḥassān, Bā Hurmuz, Bā Wazīr (see special articles and the lists of Nallino (in Gabrieli, Nome proprio, 88) and van den Berg ( Ḥadhramout , 51-61)). Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (my ed., 254) gives details on this Ḥaḍramī nomenclature, which seemed so strange to the custom-house officers at Aden that they refused to register these names. While he and al-S̲h̲ard̲j̲ī ( Ṭabaḳāt…

Bā ʿAbbād

(77 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, a family of Ḥaḍramī mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ and scholars, associated with the shrine of the prophet Hūd. Among its members were (1) ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bā ʿAbbād al-Ḥaḍramī (d. 687/1288) and (2) Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. 721/1321) both of them buried in S̲h̲ibām (al-S̲h̲ard̲j̲ī, Ṭabaḳāṭ 70, 139). For two manāḳib- works on this family, see Serjeant, The Saiyids of Ḥaḍramawt , 6, 11 f. (O. Löfgren)

Bā ʿAlawī

(1,498 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(more precisely: Āl Bā ʿAlawī, cf. art. BĀ; according to al-S̲h̲illī [ Mas̲h̲raʿ. i, 31] ʿalawī is “a well-known bird”; nisba: al-ʿAlawī [also al-Bāʿalawī], not to be confounded with the usual nisba belonging to ʿAlī), a large and influential clan of S. Arabian sayyids and Ṣūfīs, for the most part living in Ḥaḍramawt, in or near the town of Tarīm [ q.v.], and buried in the Zanbal cernetery there. The noble descent of the Bā ʿAlawī sayyids is said to have been checked in the sixth century by the traditionist ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Diadīd (d. 620/1223; Taʾrīk̲h̲ t̲h̲ag̲h̲r ʿAdan , ii, 157; Mas̲…

Baalbek

(5 words)

[see baʿlabakk ].

Bāb

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Creswell, K.A.C.
= Gate. This question is best treated under two headings, (i) in mosques, (ii) in fortifications. (i) in mosques, mausoleums, etc. Down to the end of the 3rd/9th century, no mosque had a monumental entrance. All mosques, large or small, were entered by simple rectangular doorways in the enclosure wall, e.g. the Mosque at Ḳaṣr al-Ḥayr al-S̲h̲arḳī, 110/729; the Great Mosque at Ḥarrān, entrance, c. A.D. 744-50; the Mosque of Cordova, 170/787; the Mosque of ʿAmr of 212/729; the two entrances which date from 221/836 in the Great Mosque of Ḳayrawān; the Mosque of …

Bāb

(439 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, a term applied in early S̲h̲īʿism to the senior authorised disciple of the Imām. The hagiographical Uterature of the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa usually names the bābs of the Imāms. Among the Ismāʿīliyya [ q.v.] bāb was a rank in the hierarchy. The term was already in use in pre-Fāṭimid times, though its significance is uncertain (cf. W. Ivanow, The Alleged Founder of Ismailism , Bombay 1946, 125 n. 2, citing al-Kas̲h̲s̲h̲ī, Rid̲j̲āl , 322; idem, Notes sur l’Ummu ’l-Kitab , in REI, 1932, 455; idem, Studies in early Persian Ismailism 2, Bombay 1955, 19 ff.). Under the Fāṭimids in Egypt the bāb cornes imme…

Bāb

(3,186 words)

Author(s): Bausani, A.
, an appellation [see the preceding art.] made specially famous by Sayyid ʿAlī Muḥammad of S̲h̲īrāz, the founder of the new religion of the Bābīs [ q.v.] and, according to the Bahāʾīs [ q.v.] the precursor of the new prophet Bahāʾ Allāh [ q.v.]. He is also called by his disciples Nuḳṭa-i ūlā (‘the first point’) or Ḥaḍrat-i aʿlā (‘the supreme presence’). Sayyid ʿAlī Muḥammad was born at S̲h̲īrāz, of a merchant family, on 1 Muḥarram 1235/20 October 1819 (but according to other sources, exactly a year later, 9 October 1820); becoming an orphan at an early age…

Baba

(412 words)

Author(s): Taeschner, F.
, (Turkish and also Persian) “father”; in East Turkish it also denotes “grandfather” (Vambéry, Čagat . Sprachstudien , 240; Süleymān Efendi, Lug̲h̲āt-i d̲j̲ag̲h̲atay , 66). Baba, put after the name, is used in various ways as an honorific for older men, and in Turkey it is used as a form of address even today. As part of a name, it is best known from the story of “Ali Baba and the 40 thieves” in The Thousand and One Nights . As a cognomen, it was used particularly in Dervish circles (e.g. Geyikli Baba, who is said to have accompanied Ork̲h̲ān Beg in t…

Bābā Afḍal

(795 words)

Author(s): Rypka, J.
al-dīn muḥāmmad b. ḥusayn kās̲h̲ānī (or kās̲h̲ī ), generally called Bābā Afḍal, a Persian thinker and the author of poems in quatrains, born in Maraḳ near Kās̲h̲ān, where he is also buried. His dates are still rather uncertain. According to Saʿīd Nafīsī he was born around 582/ 1186-7, or 592/1195-6, and died after 654/1256 or 664/1265-6; the date given as the date of his death by Brockelmann, II, 280, viz . Rad̲j̲ab 666/March-April 1268, is near to this. According to M. Mīnovī, Bābā Afḍal died considerably earlier, at the beginning of the 7th/13th century; the date of death given by ¶ E. G. Br…

Bābā Beg

(76 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, an Özbek chief of the family of the Keneges, who was till 1870 prince of S̲h̲ahrisabz. This town having been conquered by the Russians, he fled with a small body of those faithful to him. Finally he was seized in Ferg̲h̲ānā and obliged to reside at Tas̲h̲kent. In 1875 he entered Russian military service and took part in the campaign against Ḵh̲oḳand. He died about 1898 at Tas̲h̲kent. (W. Barthold [B. Spuler])

Bāb al-Abwāb

(975 words)

Author(s): Dunlop, D.M.
, ‘Gate of the Gates’, in the older texts al-bāb wa’l-abwāb , ‘the Gate and the Gates’, and often simply al-bāb , the Arabic designation of a pass and fortress at the E. end of the Caucasus, in Persian Darband, later under Turkish influence ‘Iron Gate’, mod. Derbent. The ‘Gates’ are the mouths of the E. Caucasus valleys (Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih. 123-4; cf. Yāḳūt, i, 439), al-Bāb itself (‘the Gate’) in the main pass being the most important. It was originally fortified against invaders from the N. …

Bābā Dāg̲h̲i̊

(6 words)

[see babadag̲h̲i̊ ].

Babadag̲h̲i̊

(771 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
a town in the Dobrud̲j̲a, now part of Rumania. Its Turkish name refers to the semi-legendary dervish (Baba) Sari̊ Salti̊ḳ, who is said to have led a number of Anatolian Turcomans to the Dobrud̲j̲a in the mid-thirteenth century, and to have settled with them in the neighbourhood of Babadag̲h̲i̊. (On this settlement see Paul Wittek, Yazijiog̲h̲lu ʿAlī on the Christian Turks of the Dobruja , in BSOAS, 1952 xvi, 639 ff.). There are several tombs of Sari̊ Salti̊ḳ in various towns; the most generally accepted is that of Babadag̲h̲i̊. What appears to be the first refer…

Babaeski

(223 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
(Bābā-yi ʿatīḳ) or Babaeskisi, a small town in eastern Thrace, situated 50 km. S.E. of Edirne, on the railway Une which links Ki̊rklareli to the Edirne, Istanbul main line. At the time of the Byzantine empire it was called Bulgarophygon; its present name is derived from the Turkish dervishes ( baba ) who settled there, as at other places, during the Ottoman expansion in the Balkans. Babaeski was a ḳaḍaʾ of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Viza in the 17th century, and was later attached to the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ki̊rkkilise (Ki̊rklareli). Taday it is one of the ḳaḍās of the wilāyet of Ki̊rklareli; its population …

Bābā Eskisi

(6 words)

[see babaeski ].

Bābā Fig̲h̲ānī

(6 words)

[see fig̲h̲ānī ].

Bābāʾī

(714 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the name of a religio-social movement which disturbed the Turkomān centres of Asia Minor a few years before the Mongol invasion, and which seems to have been of great importance in the general history of the social and cultural development of the Turkish people. It can only be understood by reference to certain general features of the development of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid state of Rūm. By the 7th/13th century, the latter had become a state with a strong administrative and cultural framework, the prod…

Bābā Isḥāḳ

(6 words)

[see bābāʾī ].
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