Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Ibn ʿAmr al-Ribāṭī

(218 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAmr al-Anṣārī , Moroccan poet and faḳīh , of Andalusian origin, who was born at Rabat, fulfilled the office of ḳāḍī for some time, and from 1224/1809 taught at Marrākus̲h̲. Whilst making the Pilgrimage, he stopped at Tunis, and received there some id̲j̲āza s; he died in the Ḥid̲j̲āz on 10 Rabīʿ I 1243/1 October 1827. Ibn ʿAmr was neither a great faḳīh nor a great poet. His works, which include in particular a dīwān , a fahrasa and a riḥla , have not been preserved in toto, and his fame rests essentially on an imita-tion of the S̲h̲amaḳmaḳiyya of Ibn al-Wannān [ q…

Ibn al-Anbārī

(39 words)

[see al-anbārī , abu ’l-barakāt . Attia Amer has published in succession at Stockholm (Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, ii, iii, vi) the Nuzhat al-alibbāʾ (1963), the Lumaʿ al-adilla fī uṣūl al-naḥw (1963) and al-Maḳṣūr wa ’l-mamdūd (1966)].

Ibn al-ʿArabī

(4,708 words)

Author(s): Ateş, A.
, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-ʿArabī al-Ḥātimī al-Ṭāʾī , known as al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Akbar (560/1165-638/1240), was one of the greatest Ṣūfīs of Islam. He is usually referred to—incorrectly—as Ibn ʿArabī, without the article, to distinguish him from Ibn al-ʿArabī, Abū Bakr [ q.v.]; in Turkey he is often referred to as “Muḥyi ’l-Dīn ʿArabī”; whereas some sources ( e.g., al-Kutubī, Fawāt al-wafayāt , Cairo 1951, ii, 487) give his kunya as Abū Bakr, in autograph notes he refers to himself only as Abū ʿAbd Allāh. Life. He was born at …

Ibn al-ʿArabī

(363 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Maʿāfirī , a traditionist belonging to Seville; b. 468/1076, d. 543/1148. In 485/1092 he travelled with his father to the East, and spent periods studying in Damascus and Bag̲h̲dād. In 489/1096 he performed the Pilgrimage, after which he returned to Bag̲h̲dād and studied under Abū Ḥāmid al-G̲h̲azālī and others. He then went with his father to Egypt and met traditionists in Cairo and Alexandria. After his father’s death in 493/1100 he returned to…

Ibn al-Aʿrābī

(628 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Muḥammad b. Ziyād , Abū ʿAbd Allāh , philologian of the school of Kūfa, who is said to have been the son of a slave from Sind who became a mawlā of al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Hās̲h̲imī. Born at Kūfa in 150/767, he was the pupil principally of al-Kisāʾī [ q.v.], of Abū Muʿāwiya al-Ḍarīr, of al-Ḳāsim b. Maʿn al-Masʿūdī (see Fihrist , Cairo, 103) and of al-Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī [ q.v.], who had married his mother and whose Mufaḍḍaliyyāt he handed on; and he in his turn had many disciples, among them T̲h̲aʿlab [ q.v.], Ibrāhīm al-Ḥarbī and Ibn al-Sikkīt [ q.v.], besides Saʿīd b. Salm b. Ḳutayba, …

Ibn ʿArabs̲h̲āh

(652 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḥanafī al-ʿAd̲j̲amī , born in 791/1392 in Damascus, was taken with his family to Samarḳand in 803/1400-1, when Tīmūr conquered Damascus and carried off many of its inhabitants (cf. Vita Timuri , ed. Manger, Leeuwaarden 1767-72, ii, 143 ff.); there he studied with al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī, al-D̲j̲azarī and others, and learned Persian, Turkish and Mongol. In 811/1408-9 he went to K̲h̲aṭā in Mongolia where he studied ḥadīt̲h̲ with al-S̲h̲irāmī, later to K̲h̲wārazm and Das̲h̲t (at Serāy and Ḥād̲j̲d̲…

Ibn ʿArafa

(197 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Warg̲h̲ammī (716/1316-803/1401), the outstanding representative of the Mālikī school in Ḥafṣid Tunisia. He was a Berber from south-eastern Tunisia, and had Tunisian and Marīnid teachers such as Ibn ʿAbd al-Salām, Ibn Salāma, Ibn Hārūn al-Kinānī, ʿUmar b. Ḳaddāḥ, Ibn al-D̲j̲abbāb, Ibn Andarās, and Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm al-Abullī. After becoming imām of the Great Mosque of Tunis and muftī , he exerted by his knowledge and virtue a considerable influence which extended outside the frontiers of his own country. H…

Ibn al-ʿArīf

(991 words)

Author(s): Faure, A.
, Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Mūsā b. ʿAtāʾ Allāh al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī , a distinguished man of intellect and celebrated Ṣūfī, born according to Ibn K̲h̲allikān on Monday 2 D̲j̲umādā I 481/24 July 1088, died in Marrākus̲h̲ 23 Ṣafar 536/27 September 1141. ¶ His father had once been ʿarīf in Tangier, that is to say he was employed as head of the guard responsible for keeping watch in the town at night. From this circumstance came his surname Ibn al-ʿArīf. Although naturally inclined to a studious life, the young Aḥmad was …

Ibn al-ʿArīf

(227 words)

Author(s): Granja, F. de la
, al-Ḥusayn b. al-Walīd b. Naṣr , Abu ’l-Ḳāsim , Andalusian man of letters in the 4th/10th century. He was known principally as a grammarian, and was always called al-Naḥwī. He was brought up in Cordova, his native city, under the guidance of Ibn al-Ḳūṭiyya [ q.v.], and in Ifrīḳiya under that of Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ. He spent several years in Egypt, where he outshone his brother al-Ḥasan, also known by the name of Ibn al-ʿArīf (d. 367/977-8), and, on his return to Spain, the ḥād̲j̲ib al-Manṣūr Ibn Abī ʿĀmir appointed him tutor ( muʾaddib ) to his sons. He always took part in the literary gatherings ( mad̲j̲ā…

Ibn Arṭāṭ

(7 words)

[see ibn sayḥān ].

Ibn ʿArūs

(156 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad , Sīdī b. ʿArūs, (died 868/1463), the greatest Tunisian saint of the late Middle Ages. A native of Cape Bon, at first he performed menial tasks while educating himself, particularly in Ṣūfism, firstly in Tunisia and then in Morocco, where he lived for a long time. He settled finally at Tunis and there lived as a vagabond marabout and miracle-worker, indulging in the most scandalous excesses, and in tak̲h̲rīb , or violation of moral and religious rules. In spite of the protests of some of the fuḳahāʾ he attracted the infatuation of the masse…

Ibn ʿAsākir

(1,769 words)

Author(s): Elisséeff, N.
, the name of the members of the Banū ʿAsākir family, eminent figures who for almost two centuries, from 470 to 660/1077-1261, held an important position in the history of the town of Damascus and produced a dynasty of S̲h̲āfiʿī scholars. Among the most illustrious members of this remarkable family it is fitting to mention al-Ḥasan b. Hibat Allāh, who was born in 470/1077 and died at Damascus in 519/1125. A grammarian and juris-consult of note, he allied himself by marriage to the family of the Banū Kurās̲h̲ī, which traced its ancestry back to the Umayyads and which included numerous ḳāḍīs

Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲

(5,429 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ , descendant of a noble Kindī family of the Ḥaḍramawt, who became famous because of his insurrection against al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.] in 80-2/699-701 or 80-3/699-702. He was the grandson of the famous al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ [ q.v.] (see, further to the references given there, L. Caetani, Annali , 40 A.H. 501-5 for further information, an assessment of him and a very full bibliography; H. Lammens, Moʿawia I er , 131, 150-2), and the son of Muḥammad [ q.v.], who was less famous than his father al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ but nevertheless played an im…

Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲

(7 words)

[see Ḥamdān Ḳarmaṭ ].

Ibn ʿĀs̲h̲ir

(755 words)

Author(s): Faure, A.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-Anṣārī al-Andalusī , Ṣufī of the Marīnid period, patron saint of the town of Salé, where he died in 764 or 765/1362-3. He was a native of Jimena in Spain and, for unknown reasons, left there to settle in Algeciras. There he supported himself by teaching the Ḳurʾān, and seems to have been happy there until one of the holy men with whom he was acquainted, and in whom he had great confidence, advised him to flee from the country before the C…

Ibn ʿĀs̲h̲ūr

(714 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
, patronymic of a family of Idrīsid descent and Moroccan origin which settled in Muslim, Spain. It is said that ʿĀs̲h̲ūr, fleeing from religious persecution, came to settle in Morocco. His son Muḥammad was born at Salé in about 1030/1621 and it was with him that the family’s importance in the history of Tunisia began, at first in the field of “mysticism”, then in those of fiḳh , of teaching and of religious offices. Muḥammad b. ʿĀs̲h̲ūr, who was initiated into mysticism in Morocco by the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥammad al-Kud̲j̲ayrī, distinguished himself at Tunis as the leader of a religiou…

Ibn ʿĀṣim

(374 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿĀṣim al-G̲h̲arnāṭī , a famous Mālikī jurisconsult, grammarian and man of letters. He was born in Granada on 12 D̲j̲umādā I 760/11 April 1359 and died there on 11 S̲h̲awwāl 829/15 August 1426. He had a brother, who was also called Muḥammad but had the kunya Abū Yaḥyā, and a son who also had the kunya Abū Yaḥyā; this last was the author of a ¶ Memorandum on the members of his family (Aḥmad Bābā, Nayl , 285). Ibn ʿĀṣim came of a family of scholars which belonged to the intellectual aristocracy of Granad…

Ibn ʿAskar

(565 words)

Author(s): Latham, J. D.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ḵh̲aḍir b. Hārūn al-G̲h̲assānī , an Andalusian faḳīh, philologist, poet and man of letters, who wrote a history of Málaga. Born in a village near this important sea-port ca. 584/1188-9, he was later to hold high judicial office there. Between 626/1229 and 631/1234 he served as deputy of Ibn Hūd’s [see hūdids ] ḳāḍī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan al-Jud̲h̲amī. In 635/1238 he was appointed ḳāḍī of Naṣrid Málaga by Muḥammad I, and he continued in that office until his death on 4 D̲j̲umādā II 636/12 January 1239. As a young man Ibn ʿAskar was a pupi…

Ibn ʿAskar

(493 words)

Author(s): Deverdun, G.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. Miṣbāḥ , Idrīsid s̲h̲arīf and Moroccan author of a highly esteemed hagiographic dictionary. He was born in S̲h̲afs̲h̲āwān (Chechaouen) in 936/1529-30; his father is said to have suffered at the hands of the infidels; his mother, herself an Idrīsid, left a great reputation for saintliness. After moving from place to place in his country, he was appointed by the Saʿdid sultan Mawlāy ʿAbd Allāh, in 967/1559-60, to be ḳāḍī and muftī of the little town of Ḳṣar Kutāma. In 969/1562 he made a long stay in south…

Ibn al-ʿAssāl

(1,233 words)

Author(s): Atiya, A.S.
, Coptic family which came originally from the village of Sadamant in the Province of Beni Suef in Middle Egypt at an unknown date and settled in Cairo, where its members rose to wealth and high station at the Ayyūbid court during the 7th/13th century. They owned a residence in the capital and occupied a position of leadership in their own community. Though their history is obscure, they were reckoned among the most learned Copts in mediaeval times. Early modern historians of Egypt appear to have vaguely recognized in Ibn al-ʿAssāl only a single personality in mediaeval C…
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