Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Ibn Abi ’l-Bag̲h̲l

(9 words)

[see muḥammad b. yaḥyā ].

Ibn Abi ’l-Bayān

(186 words)

Author(s): Vernet, J.
, Karaite Jewish physician of Egypt, whose full name was Abu ’l-Faḍl Dāwūd b. Sulaymān b. Abi ’l-Bayān al-Isrāʾīlī . Born in the middle of the 6th/12th century, he studied with his co-religionists Ibn al-Nāḳid the oculist and Ibn D̲j̲āmiʿ, later the physician of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn, and became the private physician of the Ayyūbid al-ʿĀdil (589/1193-658/1218) and professor at the Nāṣirī hospital. One of his disciples was Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa [ q.v.]. He died in 634/1236. He left the following works: (1) al-Dustūr al-bimāristānī fi ’l-adwiya ’l-murakkaba , ed. P. Sbath, in BIE, xv (1932-3), 13-80. …

Ibn Abi ’l-Dam

(398 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī , historian and S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist. Born in Ḥamāt on 21 Ḏj̲umādā I 583/29 July 1187, he studied in Bag̲h̲dād, taught in Ḥamāt, Aleppo, and Cairo, and finally was appointed judge in his native city. He went to Bag̲h̲dād in 641 on an embassy for the ruler of Ḥamāt, al-Malik al-Muẓaffar, and, in the following year, when he was again on his way to Bag̲h̲dād to announce there the death of al-Malik al-Muẓaffar, he was stricken with dysenter…

Ibn Abi ’l-Ḍiyāf

(317 words)

Author(s): Abdesselem, A.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad , Tunisian chronicler born at Tunis in 1217/1802-3, died in the same town on 17 S̲h̲aʿbān 1291/29 September 1874. As secretary and counsellor to the beys, he was entrusted with the delicate missions to Istanbul in 1246/1830 and 1258/1842, and accompanied Aḥmad Bey to Paris in 1262/1846. He played an active part in the drawing up of the Pacte Fondamental and of the Constitution of 1861 [see dustūr ]. After this date he seems to have fallen into partial disgrace, from which he was rescued only for a short time by K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn, who was chief minister from 1873. The work of Ib…

Ibn Abi ’l-Dunyā

(484 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, A.
, Abu Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿUbayd b. Sufyān al-Kuras̲h̲ī al-Bag̲h̲dādī , Arabic writer, born in 208/823 in Bag̲h̲dād and died there in 281/894. Although he was a freedman of the Umayyads, he became the tutor of several ʿAbbāsid princes and in particular of those who were later to become caliphs as al-Muʿtaḍid and al-Muḳtafī. Ibn Abi ’l-Dunyā was a learned teacher, highly respected for his exemplary way of life; he is counted as a “weak” traditionist only by the S̲h̲īʿīs (Māmaḳānī, Tanḳīḥ al-maḳāl , 7028). He led a pious and ascetic life ( zuhd ), combined wit…

Ibn Abi ’l-Ḥadīd

(1,761 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, scholar of wide learning in the fields of Arabic language, poetry and adab , rhetoric, kalām [ q.v.] and of the early history of Islam; in addition he was an uṣūlī jurist [see uṣūl ] and an eminent writer of prose and poetry. Born at al-Madāʾīn on 1 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 586/30 December 1190, he died at Bag̲h̲dād in 655/1257 or 656/1258, i.e., either immediately before or immediately after the capture of the city by the Mongols (20 Muḥarram 656/28 January 1258); since Ibn al-Fuwaṭī states that he was able to escape the massacre by the invaders by taking refuge in the house of the wazīr Ibn al-ʿAlḳ…

Ibn Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl

(598 words)

Author(s): Traini, R.
, Aḥmad b. Ṣāliḥ , historian, theologian, jurisconsult and poet, of the Zaydī sect of the Yemen. He was born in S̲h̲aʿbān 1029/July 1620 at al-S̲h̲abaṭ, in the region of al-Ahnūm, to the west of Ṣanʿāʾ, and spent all his life in the Yemen; he died on the night of Tuesday 5 or Wednesday 6 Rabīʿ I 1092/24-5 or 25-6 March 1618 at the age of 62 years 7 months, and was buried at al-Rawḍa. The biography composed by his brother Muḥammad (MS Ambrosiana nuovo fondo 256, fols. 2-11) cont…

Ibn Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl

(709 words)

Author(s): Pingree, D.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-S̲h̲aybānī al-Kātib al-Mag̲h̲ribī al-Ḳayrawānī , was the tutor and astrologer of the Zīrid prince, al-Muʿizz b. Bādīs (407-54/1016-62), who held his court at Ḳayrawān till 449/1057, and a leading official of his administration (H. R. Idris, La Berbérie orientale sous les Zīrīdes , Paris 1962, passim ); he was also the patron of the most distinguished poet at al-Muʿizz’s court, Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ (d. 456/1064), who dedicated to him his ʿUmda fī maḥāsin . It is unlikely that he is identical with the Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Mag̲h̲ribī whom al-Ḳifṭī ( Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ

Ibn Abi ’l-Sād̲j̲

(10 words)

[see muḥammad b. abi ’l-sād̲j̲ ].

Ibn Abi ’l-Ṣaḳr

(11 words)

[see muḥammad b. ʿalī b. ʿumar ].

Ibn Abi ’l-Ṣalt

(10 words)

[see umayya b. abi ’l-ṣalt ].

Ibn Abi ’l-Samḥ

(10 words)

[see mālik b. abi ’l-samḥ ].

Ibn Abi ’l-S̲h̲awārib

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Vadet, J.-C.
, name of the members of a family, the Banū Abi ’l-S̲h̲awārib, which played an important rôle during the 3rd/9th and the beginning of the 4th/10th centuries and provided the Muslim empire, which was at that time in a state of political disintegration but relatively stable doctrinally, with a succession of traditionists, jurists and ḳāḍī s. The family was of authentically noble Ḳurays̲h̲ī descent, descended from ʿAttāb b. Asīd [ q.v.]. It was of Umayyad origin and ʿUt̲h̲mānī inclination (on ʿUt̲h̲mānism in the 3rd/9th century, see Ch. Pellat, Milieu , 188; see also Arabica

Ibn Abi ’l-Zawāʾid

(9 words)

[see sulaymān b. yaḥyā ].

Ibn Abi ’l-Zinād

(256 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Dhakwān , Medinan traditionist and jurist of the 2nd/8th century, who came from a mawālī family. His father Abu ’l-Zinād (d. 130/747-8) had been made head of the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ of ʿIrāḳ, and he himself was appointed to a similar office at Medina. He then went to Bag̲h̲dād, where he died in 174/790-1 at the age of 74. His ¶ brother Abu ’l-Ḳāsim and his son Muḥammad also transmitted ḥadīt̲h̲ s. Goldziher ( Muh . Studien , i, 242 32-3, Eng. tr. i, 31, 38) noted that ʿAbd al-Rahman was one of those who, if they did not invent it, at least s…

Ibn Abī Muslim

(9 words)

[see yazīd b. dīnār ].

Ibn Abī Rabīʿa

(10 words)

[see ʿumar b. abī rabīʿa ].

Ibn Abī Randaḳa

(7 words)

[see al-ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī ].

Ibn Abī Sarḥ

(10 words)

[see ʿabd allāh b. saʿd ].

Ibn Abī S̲h̲anab

(2,571 words)

Author(s): Hadj-Sadok, M.
(in Algerian dialect Ben-S̲h̲neb and officially in French Ben Cheneb ) Muḥammad b. al-ʿArabī , Algerian teacher and Arabist, born at Taḳbu, near Médéa (Algeria) on 10 Rad̲j̲ab 1286/26 October 1869 and died at Algiers on 27 S̲h̲aʿbān 1347/5 February 1929. Some of his ancestors, who were natives of Bursa, were officers in the Turkish army stationed in Egypt, and at least one of them settled in Algeria. His grandfather, retired from the Turkish army, died at Médéa during the siege of this town (May-June 1840) by the amīr Abdelkader (ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-D̲j̲azāʾirī [ q.v.]). His father was a sm…
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