Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Ibn Abī S̲h̲ayba

(484 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm (= Abū S̲h̲ayba) b. ʿUt̲h̲mān al-ʿAbsī al-Kūfī , ʿIrāḳī traditionist and historian (159-235/775-849) who came of a family of religious scholars; his grandfather Abū S̲h̲ayba was already ḳāḍī of Wāsiṭ, but he is described as ḍaʿīf (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Lisān al-Mīzān , vi, 395). Abū Bakr studied ¶ at al-Ruṣāfa, travelled “in search of learning” and died at Kūfa after having resided at Bag̲h̲dād. He had many pupils, among them Ibn Mād̲j̲a [ q.v.], and wrote several works, which are listed in the Fihrist : K. al-Taʾrīk̲h̲ , K. al-Fitan , K. Ṣiffīn , K. al-Ḏj̲am…

Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr

(769 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad , Bag̲h̲dādī littérateur and historian. Born in 204/819-20 into a family of Persian origin, he started out as a teacher and eventually took up residence in the bookmen’s bazaar in the Eastern quarter of Bag̲h̲dād, embarking upon a literary career which brought him into contact with many of the outstanding littérateurs and high government officials of his time and resulted in the composition of about fifty works. He was also a poet whose verses provoked criticism—deserved or undeserved—in some quarters. Among other things, he wrote works in the fürstenspiegel

Ibn Abī Ṭayyiʾ

(360 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Yaḥyā b. Ḥamīd al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār al-Ḥalabī (575/1180- ca. 625-30/1228-33), an important S̲h̲īʿī historian of Aleppo, and in particular the author of a universal History, Maʿādin al-d̲h̲ahab fi taʾrīk̲h̲ al-mulūk wa ’l-k̲h̲ulafāʾ wa d̲h̲awi ’l-ratab , which even the Sunnī writers, whether or not they acknowledge the fact, were unable to refrain from utilizing. Important extracts from it are to be found preserved in the History of Ibn al-Furāt [ q.v.] and the Rawḍatayn of Abū S̲h̲āma [ q.v.], dealing with the first three-quarters of the 6th/12th century; it was known also …

Ibn Abī ʿUmāra

(7 words)

[see ḥafṣids ].

Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa

(622 words)

Author(s): Vernet, J.
, Muwaffaḳ al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Ahmād b. al-Ḳāsim b. K̲h̲alīfa b. Yūnus al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ī , physician and bibliographer whose patronymic probably derives from the fact that one of his ancestors had a deformed hand. He belonged to a family of physicians and was born in Damascus, after 590/1194. He studied under the principal teachers of his time, notably Ibn al-Bayṭār [ q.v.], who taught him botany; with his father (d. 649/1251) and al-Raḥbī (d. 631/1233) he studied medicine, which he practised in the Nūrī hospital in Damascus and the Nāṣirī hospital in Ca…

Ibn Abī ʿUyayna

(473 words)

Author(s): Ghédira, A.
, name of two poets of Baṣra of the 2nd/8th century. (I) Ibn Abī ʿUyayna the Younger or Abu ’l-Minhāl Abū ʿUyayna b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿUyayna is the better known. He was a great-grandson of al-Muhallab and the son of a governor of al-Rayy under al-Manṣūr. Towards the middle of the 2nd/8th century he became known in Baṣra through his love poems addressed to Dunyā, the pseudonym of a distant cousin, Fāṭima, the daughter of ʿUmar b. Ḥafṣ (d. 153/770), who in spite of promises was refused to …

Ibn Abī ʿUyayna

(10 words)

[see muḥ. b. abī ʿuyayna ].

Ibn Abī Zamanayn

(175 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĪsā al-Murrī , Andalusian poet and particularly jurist, born at Elvira in 324/936, died in the same town in 399/1009. The few verses of his which we have are of a somewhat religious nature and show a rather pessimistic attitude and a leaning to asceticism which is expressed in his Ḥayāt al-ḳulūb . However, he is principally known as an independent Mālikī jurist and author of several works, in particular a commentary on the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Mālik, a summary of Saḥnūn’s Mudawwana , a Kitāb Aḥwāl al-sunna and a formulary which has …

Ibn Abī Zarʿ

(213 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Fāsī , d. between 710 and 720/1310-20 at Fez, where he was imām , composed a history of Morocco entitled al-Anīs al-muṭrib bi-rawḍ al-ḳirṭās fī ak̲h̲bār mulūk al-Mag̲h̲rib wa-taʾrīk̲h̲ madīnat Fās , a title often abbreviated to Rawḍ al-ḳirṭās , or Ḳirṭās . The ¶ text of this important work, several times printed and translated, has not yet been the object of a critical edition. Texts of the Ḳirṭās : Tornberg, Annales regum Mauritaniae , Upsala 1843-6 (with Latin tr.); Fez, lithographed several times, e.g., 1303/1885; ed. (badly) Muḥammad al-Hās̲h̲imī al-Fil…

Ibn Abī Zayd al-Ḳayrawānī

(546 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Zayd ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (310-86/922-96), head of the Mālikī school of Ḳayrawān. He came of a family from Nafzawa and studied at Ḳayrawān, his birthplace, where his knowledge, his literary gifts, his piety and his wealth very soon earned him considerable prestige throughout the Muslim world. He came under the influence of As̲h̲ʿarism, which had a large following in Ḳayrawān at that time, and also that of mysticism, against whose excesses, and especially that of miracle-working, he fought. By teaching, delivering innumerable fatwā s a…

Ibn ʿAd̲h̲ārī

(7 words)

[see ibn ʿid̲h̲ārī ].

Ibn al-ʿAdīm

(624 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, Kamāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿUmar b. Aḥmad b. Hibat Allāh , historian of Aleppo, born there in 588/1192, died in Cairo in 660/1262. A wealthy and prominent family of ʿIrāḳī Arab origin, the Banu ’l-ʿAdīm acquired property in and around Aleppo, and a number of them rose to eminence or office under the successive dynasties that ruled in that city. For five generations they held the office of ḳāḍī; the historian’s father was a chief ḳāḍī under Zangid and then Ayyūbid rule. He himself, after studies in Aleppo, Damascus, Jerusalem, Bag̲h̲dād and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, served in Aleppo as a secretary, as a ḳāḍī…

Ibn ʿAd̲j̲arrad

(6 words)

[see ʿad̲j̲ārida ].

Ibn al-Ad̲j̲dābī

(528 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Ismāʿīl al-Ṭarābulusī , Arab philologist from a family originally stemming from Ad̲j̲dābiya (Libya); he himself lived at Tripoli, where he died at an uncertain date, probably in the first half of the 7th/13th century. Hardly anything further is known about his life, and the biographers limit themselves to emphasising the breadth of his knowledge and his contribution to the technical literature of scholars of his time. They attribute to him some eight works, whose titles show that he was interested in lexicography, metrics, the anwāʾ [ q.v.] and genealogies (he i…

Ibn al-Ad̲j̲dābī

(105 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Ismāʿīl b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ṭarābulusī, philologist, native of Ad̲j̲dābiya (between Barḳa and Tripoli), who lived in the 6th/12th century and died in about 650/1251. He is the author of a number of works, of which reference is made particularly to his Kitāb al-Anwāʾ (ed. Damascus 1964, by ʿIzzat Ḥasan, as al-Azmina wa’l-anwāʾ ) and to a short treatise on lexicography entitled Kifāyat al-mutaḥaffiẓ wa-nihāyat al-mutalaffiẓ , printed in Egypt in 1285/1868 and in Beirut in 1305/1887. (Ch. Pellat) Bibliography Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ, i, 130 Suyūṭī, Bug̲h̲ya, 178 Ḥād̲j̲d̲…

Ibn ʿAd̲j̲ība

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Michon, J.-L.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Mahdī Ibn ʿAd̲j̲ība al-Ḥasanī , Moroccan Ṣūfī of S̲h̲arīfian origin, was one of the most distinguished representatives of the mystical order of the Darḳāwa [ q.v.]. He was born in 1160 or 1161/1746-7 at al-K̲h̲amīs, an important village of the And̲j̲ra tribe (Mediterranean coastal region of Morocco, between Tangier and Tetuan). Having been attracted from his childhood to devotional observance ¶ and religious learning, he studied assiduously the ‘reading’ of the Ḳurʾān, theology, holy law and philology, first with local fuḳahāʾ

Ibn Ād̲j̲urrūm

(244 words)

Author(s): Troupeau, G.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Dāwūd al-Sanhād̲j̲ī , Moroccan grammarian born 672/1273-4, died 723/1323 at Fez, where he taught grammar and the art of Ḳurʾānic recitation. Ibn Ād̲j̲urrūm is the author of a celebrated Muḳaddima which bears his name, a little treatise of a few pages in which he sets out the system of the iʿrāb of words. This summary syntax, easy to memorize, has enjoyed to the present day great popularity in all the Arabic-speaking countries, in the west as well as in the east. Because of its extreme conciseness, the Muḳaddima has provoked about 60 commentaries by…

Ibn al-ʿAfīf al-Tilimsānī

(442 words)

Author(s): Rikabi, J.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAfīf al-Dīn Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Tilimsānī , nicknamed al-S̲h̲ābb al-Ẓarīf , “the witty young man”, was a poet of great skill. His father, ʿAfīf al-Dīn al-Tilimsānī [see al-tilimsānī ], was a mystic who had left Tlemcen and settled in the k̲h̲ānḳāh of Saʿīd al-Suʿadāʾ in Cairo, where the poet was born on 10 Ḏj̲umādā II 661/21 April 1263. While still young, Ibn al-ʿAfīf went with his father to Damascus, where he completed his education under the direction of his father and a numb…

Ibn al-Aḥnaf

(8 words)

[see ʿabbās b. al-aḥnaf ].

Ibn al-Ahtam

(8 words)

[see ʿamr b. al-ahtam ].
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