Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(3,685 words)

Author(s): Viré, F.
(a.) (singular -a, pl. -at, naʿāʾim ) collective noun designating the ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) without any distinction of sex. The only representative of the family of struthionids, of the sub-class of ratities or runners, the ostrich, sometimes called “ostrich-camel” (Greek στρουθο-κάμηλος, Persian us̲h̲turmurg̲h̲ “camel-bird”, Turkish devekus̲h̲u “camel-bird”), at present lives only in equatorial and southern Africa, although some were still alive in the deserts of Syria, ʿIrāḳ and Arabia until the first quarter o…


(162 words)

Author(s): Sadgrove, P.C.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , Egyptian jurist and grammarian. He was born and lived most of his life in Banhā, and died in 1859 in Cairo, aged about seventy. He was the author of two treatises on ʿilm al-ʿarabiyya , and bayān , and a number of commentaries: (1) on Ibn His̲h̲ām’s Ḳaṭr al-nadā on grammar; (2) on the S̲h̲arḥ al-k̲h̲aṭīb al-S̲h̲irbīnī , al-Iḳnāʿ fī ḥall alfāẓ Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ on fīḳh , Būlāḳ 1289/1872; (3) on al-Suyūṭī’s Tafsīr al-Ḏj̲alālayn , entitled Ḳurrat al-ʿayn wa-nuzhat al-fuʾād ; (4) on the S̲h̲arḥ al-S̲h̲abs̲h̲īrī li’l-arbaʿīn of al-Nawawī, entitled ʿArūs al-a…


(3,489 words)

Author(s): Kruk, Remke
(a.), plants. Mediaeval Islamic interest in plants may roughly be divided into four categories: (a) philological-literary; (b) practical; (c) theoretical-philosophical; and (d) general. (a) Philological-literary. Bedouin knowledge of desert life included that of desert vegetation, and this found its way into Bedouin poetry. The nasīb and raḥīl parts of the ḳaṣīda contain numerous references to plants, shrubs and trees (e.g. the mention of ayhuḳān (wild rocket) and tamarisk in Labīd’s Muʿallaḳa ). A certain amount of botanical lore is also foun…


(4,468 words)

Author(s): Graf, D.F. | Fahd, T.
or Nabīṭ (coll.), Nabaṭī (sing.), Anbāṭ (pl.), the name given by the Arabs to the Nabataeans , amongst whom they distinguished the Nabaṭ al-Sham (i.e. of Syria), installed at Petra towards the end of the Hellenistic imperial era and at the beginning of the Roman one, and the Nabaṭ al-ʿIrāḳ (i.e. of ʿIrāḳ). [The Editors of the EI have decided to retain unchanged the following two articles, despite the inevitable overlappings in their present forms.] 1. The Nabaṭ al-S̲h̲ām. The Arabic term, occuring in Aramaic inscriptions, nbṭ / nbṭw , appears very often in the …


(5 words)

[see nabaṭ ]


(544 words)

Author(s): Emery, P.G.
(a.), the name given to the popular vernacular poetry of Arabia. Opinions differ regarding its origin and nomenclature. One view is that it is the direct descendant of Classical Arabic but termed Nabaṭī to indicate that it does not conform strictly to the rules of literary Arabic. Another view, one hardly to be taken seriously, holds that Nabaṭī poetry is older than Classical Arabic, was colloquial in origin, and flourished under the dynasty of al-Anbāṭ, i.e., the Nabataeans, who ruled in Petra until 105 A.D. and who were said to be originally nomads from the Mecca area [see nabaṭ. 1]. Whatev…


(560 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
, the name of a tribe in ʿUmān, whose tribes are divided into independent fak̲h̲ūd̲h̲ (sing. fak̲h̲d̲h̲ ), with leaders generally denominated s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , each one considering himself independent of the others, and acknowledging no superior. S.B. Miles reported in 1881 that 400 “Beni Nebhán”, a Ḳaḥṭānī (G̲h̲afīrī) tribe, dwelt at Semáil ( sic for Samāʿīl), on the coast in 23′ 18° N., 58′ 58° E. They appear to have been of minor importance. J.R.L. Carter gives a genealogy of Nabāhina s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s of the Banū Riyān, exclusively from traditional oral sources, who used the title malik


(1,298 words)

Author(s): Ambros, E.G.
, Yūsuf , an important, highly renowned Ottoman poet of the second half of the 11th/17th and beginning of the 12th/18th centuries. He came from Urfa (Ruhā, hence Ruhāʾī); on the members of his family cf. M. Diriöz, Nâbî’nin âilesine dâir yeni bilgiler , in Türk Kültürü , xiv, 167 (1976), 668-73. From mentions in his writings, we know that he was born in 1052/1642-3 and that he moved to Istanbul in his early twenties, i.e., during the reign of sultan Meḥemmed IV (1058-99/1648-87). In Istanbul he enjoyed the patronage of Muṣāḥib Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a (cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī


(523 words)

Author(s): Heine, P.
(a.), a comprehensive designation for intoxicating drinks, several kinds of which were produced in early Arabia, such as mizr (from barley), bitʿ (from honey: al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Mag̲h̲āzī , bāb 60, As̲h̲riba , bāb 4; Adab , bāb 80) or from spelt (Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, iv, 402), faḍīk̲h̲ (from different kinds of dates (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, As̲h̲riba, bāb 3, 21). These ingredients were steeped in water until they were fermented, and the result of this procedure was a slightly intoxicating drink. There were also combinations of raisins, dates and honey to be found. Nabīd̲h̲ was so…

Nabī D̲j̲ird̲j̲īs

(6 words)

[see d̲j̲ird̲j̲īs ].

al-Nābig̲h̲a al-D̲h̲ubyānī

(2,815 words)

Author(s): Arazi, A.
, Ziyād b. Muʿāwiya (var. ʿAmr) b. Ḍabāb b. D̲j̲ābir (var. D̲j̲anāb) b. Yarbūʿ b. Salāma of the Banū Murra (G̲h̲aṭafān), one of the most renowned poets of the D̲j̲āhiliyya

al-Nābig̲h̲a al-D̲j̲aʿdī

(1,093 words)

Author(s): Arazi, A.
, Ḳays b. ʿAbd Allāh, according to Ibn al-Kalbī, Ḥibbān (var. Ḥassān) b. Ḳays b. ʿAbd Allāh, according to al-Ḳahd̲h̲amī, of the Banū D̲j̲aʿda (ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa), poet of the muk̲h̲aḍramūn [ q.v.] and a Companion famed for his longevity, to which he owes the honour of being included among the muʿammarūn [ q.v.] by Abū Ḥātim al-Sid̲j̲istānī. The biographical details concern the Islamic period only, and nothing or virtually nothing is known of his origins (the sole vestige, Dīwān, ed. Maria Nallino, no. IX, vv. 8-16). In 9/630, he took part in the wafd or deputation of the Banū D̲j̲aʿda to Medina. His gift ¶ of repartee and his youth having probably pleased the Prophet, the latter blessed him and he retained right up to his death at a very advanced age a perfect set of teeth. In 21-2/641-3, he migrated in company with his tribe to Baṣra ( Dīwān , no. XI, vv. 6-8, an evocation of the journey). Certain episodes of this stay there, punctuated by an expedition for the conquest of K̲h̲urāsān, have been presented in his Dīwān (a, no. XII; M. Nallino, in RSO, xiv [1934], 383-4). They bear witness to the influence of the desert and the tribe, and it is within this context that one should place the contests in


(544 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, (a.), a term of Classical Arabic which means in particular “rising generation”, but one which today has acquired the pejorative sense of “bad lot, rogue” which the plural


(5 words)

[see nawwāb ].


(8 words)

[see ʿabd al-g̲h̲anī b. ismāʿīl ].


(381 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a., pl. nud̲h̲ur , Ḳurʾān, LIII, 57), from form IV of n-d̲h̲-r , with the meaning of warner; sometimes also as a verbal noun, e.g. LXVII, 17. The plural nud̲h̲ur is also found in the sense of an infinitive, e.g. LXXVII, 6. The term occurs frequently in the Sacred Book, where it is even said to be synonymous with rasūl ; its opposite is bas̲h̲īr , mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir . Nad̲h̲īr as well as bas̲h̲īr are applied to the prophets, the former when they are represented as warners, the latter as announcers of good tidings (cf. XVII, 106; XXV, 58; XXXIII, 44; XLVIII, 8; mubas̲h̲s̲h̲iran wa-nad̲h̲īran…

Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad Dihlawī

(920 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
(Mawlwi/Deputy) (1836-1912), Urdu prose writer, is often described as “the first real novelist” in the language. But this description presupposes that by “novels” we mean fiction dealing with contemporary social themes, more or less following Western models (for fiction prior to Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad, and that on other themes, see …


(1,690 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
(a.), vow. This procedure was taken over into Islam from the pre-Islamic Arabs and underwent modification by the new religion. The idea of dedication is associated with the root
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