Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(335 words)

Author(s): Levy, R. | Bosworth, C.E.
or bāʾ-i fārsī or bāʾ-i ʿad̲j̲amī , i.e. the bāʾ with three points subscript, invented for Persian as supplement to the Arabic bāʾ and to represent the unvoiced, as opposed to the voiced, bilabial plosive (for the voiced b, see bāʾ). It is sometimes interchangeable with bāʾ (e.g. asp and asb , dabīr and dapīr ) and, more frequently, with fāʾ (e.g. sapīd and safīd , Pārs and Fārs ). The regular use of the letter in manuscripts is comparatively modern, but it is found in good ones of the 7th/13th century while at the same time it is often omitted in manuscripts of much later date ( GIPh


(646 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), the name for Muslim rulers, especially emperors. The Persian term pād-i s̲h̲āh , i.e. (according to M. Bittner, in E. Oberhummer, Die Türken und das Osmanische Reich , Leipzig 1917, 105) “lord who is a royalty” in which the root pad is connected with Sanskrit patis , lord, husband, fern, patni , Greek πότνια and δεσ-πότης, Lat. potens (G. Curtius, Griech . Etymol ., 377), was originally a title reserved exclusively for the sovereign, which in course of time and as a result of the long intercourse of the Ottomans with the states of…


(1,277 words)

Author(s): Dobbin, Christine
, the name of a major Islamic revivalist movement in Minangkabau [ q.v.], Sumatra, 1803-38. The appellation Padri is derived from orang Pidari “men of Pedir (Pidië)”, in reference to those who made the pilgrimage to Mecca by way of the Atjèhnese port of Pidië. The Padri built on earlier Minangkabau reform movements initiated by the two major Ṣūfī tarekat which had been the instrument for converting the central highlands of Sumatra, the Naksyabandiyah (Naḳs̲h̲bandiyya [ q.v.]) and the Syattariyah (S̲h̲aṭṭāriyya [ q.v.]). Operating by the late 18th century in a society which wa…


(6 words)

[see malay peninsula ].


(340 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Muḥammad b. Ilden̄iz , Nuṣrat al-Dīn , Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in the later 6th/12th century. His father Ildeñiz [ q.v.] had in course of time risen to be the real ruler in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire; the widow of Sultan Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] was Pahlawān’s mother and Arslān b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] his step-brother. In the fighting between Ildeñiz and the lord of Marāg̲h̲a, Ibn Aḳsunḳur al-Aḥmadīlī, Pahlawān played a prominent part [see marāg̲h̲a ]. From his father he inherited in 568/1172-3 Arrān, Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, al-D̲j̲ibāl, Hamad̲h̲ān, Iṣfahān and…


(742 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), from Pahlaw , properly “Parthian”, ¶ acquired in pre-modern Persian and thence in Turkish, the sense of “wrestler, one who engages in hand-to-hand physical combat”, becoming subsequently a general term for “hero, warrior, champion in battle”. From this later, broader sense it is used as a personal name in the Persian world, e.g. for the Eldigüzid Atabeg [see ilden̄izids ] Nuṣrat al-Dīn D̲j̲ahān-Pahlawān (reigned in ʿĀd̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. d. 581 or 582/1186 [see pahlawān , muḥammad b. ilden̄iz ; and see Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch, 237, for other bearers of this name]. The w…

Pahlawī, Pahlavī

(36 words)

, the name of the short lived dynasty which ruled in Persia from 1925 to 1979. Its two members were Riḍā S̲h̲āh (r. 1925-41) and his son Muḥammad Riḍā S̲h̲āh (r. 1941-79) [ q.vv.].


(80 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hindi “quarter”), English form “pie”, the smallest copper coin of British India = 1/12 of an anna. Originally, in the East India Company’s early experiments for a copper coinage, the pie, as its name implies, was the quarter of an anna or pice [see paysā ]; after the Acts of 1835, 1844 and 1870, however, the pie was ⅓ of a pice. (J. Allan) Bibliography Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases 2, 705. ¶


(5 words)

[see paysā ].

Pai Yen-Hu

(477 words)

Author(s): Lin, Chang-Kuan
(Muḥammad Ayyūb), a noted leader of northwestern Chinese Muslim rebellions against the Ch’ing-Manchu rule during the 1860s and 1870s. A native of Ching-Yang in Shensi province, he was born in 1841 into a traditional ahung family. In 1862 he joined the Muslim rebels in Shensi province, his military skills and family background making him one of eigthteen rebel leaders. After most of these had defected to or been killed by the Imperial troops, Pai assumed overall leadership of the anti-Manchu campaigns. When …


(4,231 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Sarah
, the Islamic Republic of Pākistān or Islām-i D̲j̲umhūriyya-yi Pākistān is bounded by Iran, Afg̲h̲ānistān, the former Soviet Union, China, India and the Arabian Sea. It covers an area of 706,495 km2 and has a population of 114,071,000 (1990 estimate which includes the population of the disputed state of D̲j̲ammū and Kas̲h̲mir as well as Afg̲h̲ān refugees). The country is divided into four distinct physical regions. In the north, sections of the Himalayan and Karakoram ranges reach an average of more than 6,100 m/20,000 ft. an…

Pāk Pāt́́an

(294 words)

Author(s): Nizami, K.A.
, a taḥṣīl in the Montgomery district of the Pand̲j̲āb in Pākistān, famous for its association with S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Farīd-al-Dīn Masʿūd Gand̲j̲-i S̲h̲akar [ q.v.]. It was founded by a prince of the Yaudhaya tribe and was named Ad̲j̲odhan. It appears from Greek accounts that the place existed at the time of Alexander’s invasion. When S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Farīd settled ¶ there, it was a deserted town, having forests full of ferocious beasts and reptiles. Gradually, it became a great centre of spiritual culture and people from far and near were attracted to the d̲j̲amāʿat-k̲h̲āna


(243 words)

Author(s): F. Babinger-[Ed.]
(p.), Ottoman Turkish form pālāheng , literally “string, rope, halter, cord”, is applied to the belt worn around the waist by dervishes, especially the Bektās̲h̲īs [see bektās̲h̲iyya ], and on which is fixed a disc of stone (of jasper, found near the tomb of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ at Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ Köy in Anatolia, of crystal or of translucent stone from Nad̲j̲af in ʿIrāḳ) with twelve flutings at the edge; these are said by the Bektās̲h̲īs to symbolise the Twelve ¶ Imāms , the Twelve Disciples of Jesus or even the Twelve Tribes of Israel (see J.K. Birge, The Bektashi order of dervishes, …


(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.


(332 words)

Author(s): Schumann, O.
, the capital city of the province of Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra) in Indonesia, situated on the shores of the Musi river. It lies in long. 104° 45′ E. and lat. 2° 59′ S., and has a population of ca. 790,000 (1990), of whom some 85% are Muslims. The area of Palembang, united with neighbouring Malayu (Jambi), was the centre of the (Mahayana-) Buddhist empire of Sri Vid̲j̲aya (4th-14th centuries A.D.), renowned especially in the 8th-10th centuries for its famous study centres for Buddhism and Sanskrit. After …


(629 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name (of unknown etymology) of a mountain massif of Inner Asia. Its core is in the modern Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous oblast of the former USSR, but it spills over into Kirghizia and Tadjikistan to the north and west, and into the Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China to the east, and Afg̲h̲ānistān (including the Wak̲h̲ān corridor) and Pākistānī Kas̲h̲mir (Āzād Kas̲h̲mīr) to the south. Comprised mainly of east-west-running ranges, its many river valleys being rig…


(2,294 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, an ideology advocating an overall union of Arabs (
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