Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Purchase Access
Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

Subscriptions: see Brill.com


(5 words)

[see tawriya ].


(1,711 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, maṣdar of aḥdat̲h̲a , from the root . t̲h̲ ., which expresses the idea of an innovation in time. Ḥadīt̲h̲ is the opposite of ḳadīm , “ancient”, whence “eternal” a parte ante; ḥudūt̲h̲ is the opposite of ḳudma . In the Ḳurʾān the fourth form ( yuḥdit̲h̲ , muḥdat̲h̲ ) is used with the direct object d̲h̲ikr . Commenting on XX, 113, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī considers why the Word of God produces a d̲h̲ikr and not a taḳwā ; the reason, he suggests, is that “ taḳwā denotes the act of not doing evil, and it consists in remaining in a fundamental negativeness” ( wa-d̲h̲ālika ‘stimrār ʿala ’l-ʿadam al-aṣlī


(1,013 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Jomier, J.
, maṣdar of the verb aḥrama , is an “act of declaring (or making) sacred or forbidden”. The opposite is iḥlāl “act of declaring permitted”. The word iḥrām had become a technical term for the state of temporary consecration of someone who is performing the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ or the ʿumra ; a person in This state is referred to as muḥrim . The entering into This holy state (also called iḥlāl) is accomplished, for men and women, by the statement of intention, accompanied by certain rites and in addition, for men, by the donning of the ritual garment. When making the intenti…


(8 words)

, Aḥmad [see aḥmad iḥsān ].


(5 words)

[see muḥṣan ],


(5 words)

[see ḥisba ].


(1,855 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
means, in the language of the fuḳahāʾ , “bringing to life”, with the precise meaning of putting a piece of land to use. The word is in fact nearly always associated with mawāt lands, that is, land which is uncultivated or merely lying fallow, which belongs to nobody and which is, in general, far from centres of population. The appropriation of This land by an individual entails his first putting it to use. The writers base This method of acquiring property by putting it to use on a statement by ʿUmar and on ḥadīt̲h̲s which they trace to the Prophet and in which it is said in particular: “ Mawāt


(545 words)

Author(s): Neubauer, E.
ʿ(form IV from w-ḳ-ʿ ), literally “to let fall” the wand ( ḳāḍīb ) in order to mark the rhythm in singing, a term denoting musical metrics or “rhythm” in the sense of measuring the quantity of notes. The early Islamic īḳaʿ can be considered as a forerunner of mediaeval European mensura. Based on oriental practices inherited by the Arabs, it shows elements of Greek rhythmos and similarities to Indian tāla . According to Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Urmawī, the roots of īḳāʿ go back to Sāsānid Iran, where Indian musical presence is attested. The internal structure of īḳāʿ is obviously of Arab origin, bein…


(1,807 words)

Author(s): Monés, Hussain
, name of one of the most decisive battles in the long struggle between Islam and Christendom for possession of the Iberian Peninsula. It took place on Monday 15 Ṣafar 609/16 July 1212, and ended with a complete victory for a large all-Iberian Christian army, supported by considerable crusading forces from Western Europe and led by Alfonso VIII of Castile, over an equally numerous Muslim army led by Muḥammad al-Nāṣir, the fourth Almohade Caliph. It is known in Spanish annals as the “battle of La…


(32 words)

(a.), punishment. On legal penalties, see d̲j̲azāʾ , ḥadd , taʿzīr , ʿuḳūba . On divine punishment, see ʿad̲h̲āb : on the “punishment of the tomb”, see ʿad̲h̲āb al-ḳabr .


(636 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
, an agreement which cancels, wholly or in part, a previous agreement between the same parties. The question is treated by the fuḳahaʾ in the chapter on sale; the authors devote to it long expositions, because of the favour with which fiḳh regards all methods of mitigating the obligatory nature of a contract. As is said in a ḥadīt̲h̲: “For him who annuls ( aḳāla ) a sale which the other party regrets [having concluded], God will annul his sins on the day of the Resurrection”. When Muslim jurists consider the subject of sale, they ask the…


(384 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th.W.
(a.), the second call to the ṣalāt which is pronounced by the muʾad̲h̲d̲h̲in in the mosque before each of the five prescribed daily ṣalāts as well as before the ṣalāt at the Friday service. This second call is given at the moment at which the ṣalāt begins. The formulae of the iḳāma are the same as those of the ad̲h̲ān . According to the Ḥanafīs, they are repeated as often as in the ad̲h̲ān; according to the other schools, they are pronounced only once with the exception of the words “God is great”, which are repeated twice at the beginning as well as at the end of the iḳāma. Moreover, after the formul…


(2,591 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
, Muḥammad , was born in 1873 (or more probably 1876) in Sialkot, Pand̲j̲āb. During his studies in Lahore he became acquainted with Sir Thomas Arnold, who was partly responsible for his coming to England in 1905. In Cambridge, Iḳbāl, already a noted romantic and Indian-nationalist poet in Urdu, studied philosophy under the Hegelian J. M. E. McTaggart, and law. In 1907 he visited Germany and obtained his Ph. D. in Munich with F. Hommel. His thesis The development of metaphysics in Persia shows already his interest in Islamic mystical philosophy, which he …


(5 words)

[see ḳāfiya ].


(1,294 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
The IVth form adds to the double idea of the root—purity and salvation—that of “dedicating, devoting or consecrating oneself” to something. Ik̲h̲lāṣ is pre-eminently an interior virtue of the faithful Muslim, which implies both the unadulterated purity (and thus sincerity) of religious actions, pure (exclusive) worship given to God and pure (absolute) devotion to God and the Community of Believers. The perfection of one’s adherence, and witness, to faith is gauged by ik̲h̲lāṣ and iḥsān (uprightness in good). The Ḳurʾān often uses the participle muk̲h̲liṣ , …


(5 words)

[see ak̲h̲mīm ].


(340 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
the title given to local Iranian rulers of Sog̲h̲dia and Farg̲h̲āna in the pre-Islamic and early Islamic period. Although Justi ( Iranisches Namenbuch , 14 ), Unvala ( The translation of an extract from Mafâtîh al-ʿUlûm of al-K̲h̲wârazmî , in J. of the . Cama Ins xi (1928), 18-19) and Spuler ( Iran , 30-1, 356) derive it from O. Pers. k̲h̲s̲h̲aeta- ‘shining, brilliant’, an etymology from O. Pers. k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya- ‘king, ruler’ (M. Pers. and N. Pers. s̲h̲āh ) is more probable (Christensen, and Bosworth and Clauson, see below). This O. Pers. term k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya- penetrated beyond T…


(9 words)

[see kāfūr and muḥammad b. ṭug̲h̲d̲j̲ ]. ¶


(853 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
, spontaneous pulsations, tremblings or convulsions which occur in all parts of the body, in particular in the limbs, the eyelids and the eyebrows and which provide omens the interpretation of which as a divinatory sign is known as the ʿilm al-ik̲h̲tilād̲j̲ or “palmoscopy”. Palmoscopy forms part of physiognomy and, like it, formed part of medical diagnosis by the physicians of classical antiquity, among them Galen, who established a distinction between “palpitation” and “trembling, shudder, convulsion”. As a divinatory practice, Islamic palmoscopy seems to have as its s…


(1,073 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
(a.), difference, also inconsistency; as a technical term, the differences of opinion amongst the authorities of religious law, both between the several schools and within each of them; opp. id̲j̲māʾ , ittifāḳ . The ancient schools of law, on the one hand, accepted geographical differences of doctrines as natural; on the other hand, they voiced strong objections to disagreement within each school, an opinion which was mitigated by their acceptance as legitimate of different opinions if based on id̲j̲tihād . The rising tide of traditions from the Prop…
▲   Back to top   ▲