Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Māḍī and Muḍāriʿ

(3,165 words)

Author(s): Michael G. Carter
Of the various features which interested the Arab grammarians, there is space here to deal only with the time reference of verbs and the nature and consequences of the resemblance between the muḍāriʿ verb and the agent noun. Verb morphology in general, especially the numerous problems resulting from the clash of morphology and phonology, must be left out of account, although the larger texts devote scores if not hundreds of pages to this topic under the heading of ṣarf or taṣrīf) ‘ conjugation’. Because of the abundance of sources and wide variety of opinions, only the gist i…

Mafʿūl

(4,367 words)

Author(s): Zeinab Ahmed Taha
1. Definition …

Mafʿūl fīhi

(2,963 words)

Author(s): Kees Versteegh
In early Arabic grammar, the usual term for adverbial adjuncts was ḍarf (pl. ḍurūf), lit. ‘container’. It has been suggested (Merx 1889:146; cf. Talmon 2000:248) that this is a Greek borrowing from the word anggeíon ‘vessel, receptacle’, used by Aristotle to indicate the temporal or local circumstances. In Sībawayhi's Kitāb, the term ḍarf denotes both the extralinguistic reality of location and time, and the syntactic function (Mosel 1975:345–362). The extralinguistic reality is…

Maḥmūl

(1,761 words)

Author(s): Miklós Maróth
The term maḥmūl ‘ predicate’ is part of Arabic philosophical terminology, equivalent to the Latin praedicatum (Georr 1948:217; Afnan 1969:80–81; Versteegh 1993:24–25). Its meaning in philosophical terminology corresponds to that of xabar in linguistics (Elamrani-Jamal 1983:138–144; Fārābī, Ḥurūf 111.5–7), or ṣifa as…

Maintenance

(6 words)

see Language Shift: Amazigh

Malayalam

(3,835 words)

Author(s): R.E. Asher
1. Historical background Malayalam, a South Dravidian language (see Krishnamurti 2005), is the mother tongue of 96 percent of the population of the Indian state of Kerala. It is also the principal language of Lakshadweep, the Laccadive Islands, a chain of islands in the Arabian Sea running parallel to the coastal strip in the southwest of India that makes up Kerala. The total number of inhabitants recorded for Kerala in the 2001 census was 31,841,374, and for Lakshadweep 60,650. The history of Malayalam as a separate language goes…

Malaysia

(5,378 words)

Author(s): Peter G. Riddell
This article considers the role of the Arabic language in the area covered broadly by the modern state of Malaysia, from the establishment of Islam in the region up to the early 21st century.…

Maltese

(8,381 words)

Author(s): Manwel Mifsud
1. General …

Maʿnā

(3,646 words)

Author(s): Djamel Eddine Kouloughli
1. Introduction …
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