Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Subject: Asian Studies

Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese

Brill’s Encyclopedia of China Online is based on the originally a thousand-page reference work on China with a clear focus on the modern period from the mid-nineteenth century to the 21st century. Written by the world’s top scholars, Brill’s Encyclopedia of China is the first place to look for reliable information on the history, geography, society, economy, politics, science, and culture of China.

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(209 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
AJCA Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs APEC …


(1,431 words)

Author(s): Staiger, Brunhild

Administrative Law

(3,301 words)

Author(s): Heuser, Robert
1. Concept, Development, and Functions Modern administrative law does not only aim at facilitating administrative tasks, but also at protecting citizens (who are considered as legal persons) from infringements by administrative b…

Adult Education

(957 words)

Author(s): Humberg, Carlo
In Chinese the term "adult education" ( chengren jiaoyu) is still a rather new expression. While it was sporadically used in the early 1970s , its significance dates from the mid-1980s, especially the First National Working Conference on Adult Education in December 1986. Before this date, the terms "people's education" and "mass education" were normally used ( tongsu jiaoyu, shehui jiaoyu, pingmin jiaoyu, or minzhong jiaoyu). However, the phenomena summarized under these different terms were very similar and can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century. To this day, there is no strict separation between adult and vocational education, nor between formal and informal education. At the beginning of the 20th century, widespread illiteracy was regarded as the major obstacle to modernization. For a long time, therefore, adult education was mainly understood as a means to increase literacy, which is an issue of ongoing importance . Ins…


(1,228 words)

Author(s): Johansson, Perry
There are three distinct periods in the history of modern advertising in China. First, the Republican era, when modern advertising first developed on a larger scale. Second, the Mao era, when advertising almost totally disappeared for political reasons. A third stage was introduced with the economic reforms and the come-back of advertising in 1979.…

Advisory Board (original German edition)

(227 words)

Author(s): Leese, Daniel
Robert Ash, Professor, Dept. of Economics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Marianne Bastid-Bruguière, Senior Research Professor at the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Paris David S. G. Goodman, Professor of Contemporary China Studies, University of Technology, Sydney Thomas Heberer, Professor, Institute of East Asian Studies (Political Science), University of Du…


(1,133 words)

Author(s): Kubin, Wolfgang
There has always been aesthetic thinking in China, although not as a philosophical discipline. It was only established as a field under Western influence during the course of the 20th century. Its Chinese name


(1,723 words)

Author(s): Jackson, Steven F.
China's first direct contacts with Africa date back to the Ming dynasty voyages of the Muslim eunuch Zheng He, who led three large maritime expeditions to the east coast of Africa in 1417, 1421, and 1431. Following the return of the last expedition, the Ming dynasty adopted a more introspective policy, and it would not be until 1956 that regular, modern diplomatic relations with independent African nations were established. Africa is a region of moderately high importance in China's modern foreign relations. Although China and Africa are geographically remote, Sino-African issues have on occasion been very important, such as the admission of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations in 1971; China was admitted because of a large number of African member states' votes. Another important issue was the Angolan Civil War in 1975-76, du…

Agricultural Policy

(2,647 words)

Author(s): Aubert, Claude
During the 20th century, China's agricultural policy faced one basic constant: peasant poverty. During the first half of the 20th century, different reasons were made responsible for this poverty: overpopulation, outdated agricultural techniques, a deficient commercial infrastructure, and the landownership conditions. If disasters struck, such as floods, droughts, or civil war, the heavily indebted peasants, who only produced what they required for their survival, would became beggars. Whereas Sun Yatsen had demanded the distribution of "land to the tiller", th…


(3,319 words)

Author(s): Ash, Robert
According to both the Western and Chinese understanding, the term agriculture embraces in the broader sense: crop growing, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishing. Since 1992, "sidelines" which were formerly included as separate agricultural activities (such as some handicrafts, animal hunting, plant gathering, etc.), have disappeared from official statistics. In terms of its contribution to farm value-output, crop farming remains the single most important categ…

Agriculture and Forestry, sciences of

(799 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Raimund Th.
In 1990 the Directory of Chinese Learned Organizations listed altogether 375 research institutes, universities, institutions of higher education, societies, and associations which are occupied with the sciences of agriculture and forestry in the PRC today. The reforms of the 1890s (Reform Movement of 1898) led to the first concrete measures towards agricultural modernization in line with Western or Japanese standards of knowledge. In 1899 the state gave permission for the first study-abroad programs in…