Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

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Subject: Jewish Studies

Executive Editor: Norman A. Stillman

The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online (EJIW) is the first cohesive and discreet reference work which covers the Jews of Muslim lands particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods. The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online is updated with newly commissioned articles, illustrations, multimedia, and primary source material. 

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A (À bout de souffle (Breathless, film, Godard), music of - Abū Ibrāhīm (Isaac) ibn Yashūsh ibn Kastar)

(2,179 words)

À bout de souffle (Breathless, film, Godard), music of, Solal, Martial A‘arokh Mehallel Nivi (I Will Compose Praise with My Words, poem, Ben Ḥassin), Ben Ḥassin, David Aaron, spiritual relationship to Moses, Shiʽa and the Jews Aaron of Baghdad, Southern Italy and Bari Aaron ben Aaron, Jebel Nafusa Aaron ben Amram, Aaron ben Amram, Court Jews, Joseph ben Phinehas Aaron ben Asher, Syria Aaron ben Elijah of Nicomedia, Bible Exegesis Aaron ben Jeshua see‘Abū ’l-Faraj Hārūn ibn Faraj Aaron ben Joseph, Kalām, Bible Exegesis Aaron ben Mashiaḥ, Judeo-Persian Literature Aaron ben Me’ir (gaon…

A (Abū ‘Imrān al-Fāsī - adults, education of)

(2,033 words)

Abū ‘Imrān al-Fāsī, Ibn ʿAṭāʾ, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm (Abraham ben Nathan) Abū ‘Imrān al-Tiflīsī, Malik al-Ramlī, Abū ʿImrān al-Tiflīsī Abū ‘Isā al-Isfahānī, Iran/Persia, Isfahan, Messianism, Shiʽa and the Jews, Abū ʿIsā of Isfahan, Hamadan, Yūdghān Abū Isḥāq seeIbn al-Ḥarīzī, Abraham Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn ‘Aṭā’ seeIbn ‘Aṭā’ Abu Iyad (Palestinian terrorist), Romano, Joseph Abū Ja‘far Ibn Bābawayh, Polemics (Muslim-Jewish) Abū ’l-Jaysh Mujāhid (Taifa King), Denia Abū ’l-Karam al-Dārānī, Bukhara Abū ’l-Kathīr Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā’ (d. ca. 932), Abū 'l-Kathīr Yaḥyā ibn Za…

A (Ādurbād ī Ēmēdān - Akedat Yitzhak School (Talmud Torah school, Edirne))

(1,641 words)

Ādurbād ī Ēmēdān, Zoroastrians, (Jewish relations with) adventure stories, translations into Hebrew, Literature, Hebrew Prose (medieval) The Adventures of Tintin (film, Spielberg), Elmaleh, Gad Advertisement Foundation (Istanbul), Medina, Cefi (Jeffi) advertising sector  in Turkey, Medina, Cefi (Jeffi)   Jewish involvement in, Acıman, Eli, Barouh, N. Izidor, Barouh, Yakup, Scialom, Sedat Adwā’ ‘alā ’l-Ṣahyūniyya (Illuminations on Zionism, al-Sa‘danī), Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism Aegean Sea, coastal region, Jewish communities in, Aegean Sea,…

A (Akhbār Baghdād (Chronicle of Baghdad, Nathan ha-Bavlī) - Alexandria: travel accounts of)

(1,625 words)

Akhbār Baghdād (Chronicle of Baghdad, Nathan ha-Bavlī), Yeshivot in Babylonia/Iraq, Joseph ben Phinehas, Kohen Ṣedeq ben Joseph Gaon, Nathan ha-Bavlī  on Bar Saṭya, Bar Saṭya, Joseph ben Jacob  on exilarchate appointments, Baghdad  on seating arrangements in yeshivot, Alluf Akhbār Majmū‘a (Arab chronicle), Al-Andalus, Muslim conquests and the Jews, Seville akhnif (cloak), Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up Aki Yerushalaim: Revista Kulturala Djudeo-Espanyola (periodical, Israel), Shaul, Moshe Akiva (The Hope, newspaper, Turkey), Turkish Republic Akka (Morocco)  Jewish com…

A (“Alexandria, Egypt: Modern” (article, Elijah Bekhor Ḥazzan) - ‘Alī Bū Damī’a (regional strong in Southern Morocco))

(1,841 words)

“Alexandria, Egypt: Modern” (article, Elijah Bekhor Ḥazzan), Ḥazzan, Elijah Bekhor Alexandru Moruzi (prince of Moldavia), Romania (Ottoman) Aley (Lebanon), Jewish community in, synagogues of, Lebanon ‘Aley Nahar (Harari-Raful), Harari-Raful, Nissim ben Isaiah Alfakhar, Judah ben Joseph, Seville Alfandari, Aaron ben Moses, Alfandari, Aaron ben Moses, Rosanes (Rosales) Family Alfandari, David, Alfandari Family Alfandari, David ben Abraham, Bible Exegesis Alfandari, Elijah, Alfandari Family Alfandari, Elijah ben Jacob, Alfandari Family Alfandari, Ḥayyim, Qimḥi/Qamḥ…

A (‘Alī Burghul (ruler of Tripoli) - Alliance Française schools)

(1,189 words)

‘Alī Burghul (ruler of Tripoli), Khalfon, Abraham ‘Alī ibn Abī al-Ṭālib (fourth caliph, Muḥammad’s cousin and son-in-law, r. 656-661), Muslim conquests and the Jews, Shiʽa and the Jews, Shiʽa and the Jews, Court Jews  and Noah, Shiʽa and the Jews  spiritual relationship to Muḥammad, Shiʽa and the Jews ‘Alī ibn al-Furāt, Aaron ben Amram ‘Alī ibn ‘Īsā (vizier), Cairo Geniza, Joseph ben Phinehas ‘Alī ibn Mahdī, Messianism, Messianism ‘Alī ibn Mujāhid, Ibn Yashūsh, Isaac (Abū Ibrāhīm) Ibn Qasṭār ‘Alī ibn Mūsā al-Riḍā (8th Shī‘ī imam), Polemics (Muslim-Jewish), Mashhad ‘Alī ibn Sulaymān…

A (Alliance Israélite Universelle (AIU) - Almoravids: ruling of Valencia)

(1,403 words)

Alliance Israélite Universelle (AIU), Alliance Israélite Universelle Network, Camondo, Abraham de, École Normale Israélite Orientale, Paris, Judeo-Spanish Literature, Education, Club des Intimes, Salonica, Fernandez, Isaac, Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden, La Nation (Salonica), L’Aurore (Istanbul)  activities   in Morocco, Casablanca, Morocco, Morocco    special status of Jews in Morocco requested, Dahan, Jacques   in Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Empire   social support, in Edirne, Edirne (Adrianople)  alumni associations/graduates, Nahoum (Nahum), Haim (Ḥa…

A (Almosnino, Abraham - Ancona (Italy): yeshiva)

(1,419 words)

Almosnino, Abraham, Almosnino, Isaac Almosnino, Isaac, Almosnino, Isaac Almosnino, Joseph, Serbia, Ibn Ḥayyim, Aaron ben Abraham Almosnino, Joseph ben Isaac, Belgrade, Almosnino, Joseph ben Isaac Almosnino, Moses ben Baruch, Balkans, Judeo-Spanish Literature, Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium, Salonica (Thessaloniki; Selanik), Almosnino, Moses ben Baruch  writings of, Almosnino, Moses ben Baruch Almosnino, Samuel, Levi (Le-Vet Ha-Levi) Family, Salonica Almosnino family, Almosnino, Moses ben Baruch almoxarife (collector of revenues), Jews as,…

A (anti-dhimmī measures - anti-Jewish violence/agitation: blood libel cases; persecution, of Jews; terrorist attacks)

(1,096 words)

anti- dhimmī measures  in Fatimid caliphate, Egypt, Palestine, Tustarī Family  in Mamluk Egypt, Egypt anti-European violence, in Casablanca (1906), Zagury, Yaḥyā anti-French violence, in Syria (1936), Syria anti-Greek violence, in Istanbul, Turkish Republic Anti-Jewish Leagues (Algeria), Oran anti-Jewish measures  in Algeria, Constantine, Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism  of Almohads, Maimonides, Moses  of Almoravids, Almoravids, Almoravids  in al-Andalus, Al-Andalus, Spain, Niebla  in Central Asia   Bukhara, Bukhara   Turkestan, Bukhara  in the Crim…

A ( anti-dhimmi sentiments in - anti-dhimmī agitation/violence: writings)

(1,545 words)

al-Andalus, Al-Andalus  anti-dhimmi sentiments in, Ibn Naghrella, Samuel (Abū Ibrāhim Ismāʿīl) ben Joseph ha-Nagid  anti-Jewish measures in, Al-Andalus, Spain, Niebla  anti-Jewish violence in   in 1066, Al-Andalus     see alsoGranada   in 1391, Jaén  Arab minority in, Al-Andalus  Arabic tradition of, Barcelona  Christian-Jewish relations in, Al-Andalus  Christians in, Al-Andalus   dhimma laws in, Dhimma  Jewish culture in, Al-Andalus, Al-Andalus, Sephardi (Sephardim), David (Abū ʾl-Ḥasan) ben al-Dayyan   in Almohad period, Al-Andalus   Arabic influences on, Co…

A (anti-Judaism/antisemitism - Arabic culture: theater, in Tunisia)

(1,317 words)

anti-Judaism/antisemitism  in Algeria, Algiers, Crémieux Decree, Mostaganem, Médéa, Hanin, Roger   fights against, Aboulker, Henri   French colonial period, Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism, Constantine Riots (1934), Algeria, Algeria, Oran, Tiaret (Tahert), Batna    Crémieux Decree, Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbès    Vichy regime, Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism, Algeria, Derrida, Jacques, Internment Camps (WWII), Internment Camps (WWII), Béchar (Colomb-Béchar)   Miliana, Miliana   Oran, Oran, Oran, Oran   Souk-Ahras, Souk-Ahras  in Balkans, Ba…

A (Arabic language - Arbib, Mezeltobe)

(1,346 words)

 affinities with Hebrew and Aramaic, Judeo-Arabic - History and Linguistic Description   and Bible exegesis, Bible Exegesis   Classical, Judeo-Arabic - History and Linguistic Description, Judeo-Arabic - History and Linguistic Description, Judeo-Arabic - History and Linguistic Description  Egyptian-Sudanese, Sudan  grammar   Basran school of, ʾAbū al-Faraj Hārūn ibn Faraj (Aaron b. Jeshua)   influences on Hebrew grammarians, Ibn Barūn, Isaac (Abū Ibrāhīm) ben Joseph, Ibn Janāḥ, Jonah (Abū ʾl-Walīd Marwān), Ibn Janāḥ, Jonah (Abū ʾl-Walīd Marwān)   Muslim scholars of,…

A (Arbib, Raffaele - Ashira Na li-Ydidi (Let Me Sing to My Friend, piyyuṭ Serero))

(1,341 words)

Arbib, Raffaele, Arbib family Arbib, Roberto, Arbib family Arbib, Ruben, Arbib family Arbib, Simon, Arbib, Lillo Arbib family, Arbib family Arbil (Iraq), Jewish community in, Arbil al-Arbīlī, Eli ben Zechariah, Gaon and Gaonate Arcady, Alexandre, Cinema, French, North African Jewish Actors and Characters in, France, Hanin, Roger Archaemenid period (550-330 B.C.E.), Judeo-Persian spoken in, Judeo-Persian language archeology, evidence from, of Jewish presence in ancient Tunisia, Tunisia architecture  of Ahrida synagogue (Istanbul), Ahrida Synagogue (Balat)  Persian, of …

Aaron ben Amram

(760 words)

Author(s): Michael G. Wechsler
Aaron ben Amram—or, as his name is given in Arabic sources, Hārūn ibn ʿImrān—lived in the second half of the ninth century and the first quarter of the tenth. He apparently began his career as a trader, as in one Arabic source he and his partner, Joseph ben Phinehas , are referred to as al-tujjār (the merchants). Eventually he became a jahbadh (banker). In this capacity, with responsibility for administering, remitting, and supplying funds, Aaron, together with the jahbadh Joseph ben Phinehas (Yūsuf ibn Fīnḥās), played a key role in the financial administration of the ʿAbbasid empire. The b…
Date: 2015-09-03

Aaron ben Me’ir

(454 words)

Author(s): Yoram Erder
In 921, a conflict erupted between the Babylonian yeshivot and the Palestinian yeshiva over the day on which the Passover holiday should be celebrated in 922. According to the Palestinians, the first day of Passover would be a Sunday, whereas the Babylonians held that it would be a Tuesday. The ensuing dispute was but one element in the ongoing struggle in the gaonic pe riod between the  Babylonian yeshivot and the Palestinian yeshiva for hegemony over the world’s Jewish communities. Both the calendar dispute and the overall conflict ended in a Babylonian victory. Aaron ben Me’ir led t…

Aaron Ḥakīmān

(523 words)

Author(s): Michael G. Wechsler
Aaron ben Abraham Ḥakīmān, who lived toward the middle of the fourteenth century in Iraq, is known to us from his unique and unfortunately lacunal dīwān (poetry collection), containing 115 folios, in the Russian National Library (St. Petersburg), identified by Schirmann as MS 72 of the second Firkovitch collection (= no. 47406 in the JTS Schocken Institute online catalogue). From the variety of poetic compositions (including maqāmāt and muwashshaḥāt) in this dīwān, it is clear that Aaron was well acquainted with classical Arabic poetry, both Jewish and Muslim, and …

A (Ashkelon (Israel) - astronomers: Muslim)

(1,627 words)

Ashkelon (Israel)  in Fatimid period, and anti- dhimmī decrees of al-Ḥākim, Tustarī Family  Jewish community in, Palestine, Palestine   deported from Jerusalem by Crusaders, Palestine   synagogues, Tazenakht  mayor of, Abuḥaṣera, Barukh (Baba Barukh)  Samaritans in, Samaritans under Muslim Rule Ashkenazi, Abraham, Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium, Usque, Solomon Ashkenazi, Abraham ben Raphael, Ashkenazi, Judah Ben Joseph Ashkenazi, Abraham Qalmanaqesh, Aben Ṣur Family Ashkenazi, Azariah Joshua, Izmir Ashkenazi, Behor, Ashkenazi, Bekhor (Beho…

A (astronomical tables - al-Azharī, Esther)

(1,588 words)

astronomical tables  of Alfonso, X, Judah ben Moses ha-Kohen  of Bar Ḥiyya, Abraham bar Ḥiyya  of Zacuto, Science (Medieval) astronomy  Aristotelian influences on, Science (Medieval)  calculations in, Ibn Matqa, Judah ben Solomon ha-Kohen, Ḥasan ben Mar Ḥasan  observations of, used in religious calendars, Karaism  study of   by Abraham of Toledo, Abraham of Toledo   by Ibn Tibbon, Jacob ben Machir, Ibn Tibbon, Jacob ben Machir  writings on   by Dunash ben Tamīm, Dunash (Abū Sahl) ben Tamīm   by Ibn Ezra, Abraham, Ibn Ezra, Abraham (Abu Iṣḥāq), Ibn Ezra, Abraham (Abu Iṣḥāq) Astruc, I…

A (azharot (exhortations/hymns, poetical rendering of the 613 commandments) - Azulay, Ḥayyim Joseph David (Ḥida): writings of)

(372 words)

azharot (exhortations/hymns, poetical rendering of the 613 commandments), Sifre Miṣvot  of al-Bargeloni, Sifre Miṣvot, Bargeloni, Isaac ben Reuben, al-, Edrehi (al-Darʿī), Moses b. Isaac  and commandments, Sifre Miṣvot  contemporary use of, Sifre Miṣvot  of Elbaz, Samuel ben Judah, Elbaz, Samuel ben Judah  halakhic content of, Sifre Miṣvot  of Ibn Chiquitilla, Isaac, Ibn Chiquitilla, Isaac  of Ibn Gabirol, Solomon, Ibn Gabirol, Solomon, Ibn Chiquitilla, Isaac, David ben Eleazar ibn Paquda   commentaries on, Amīnā, Benjamin ben Mishaʾel, Elisha ben Samuel (Rāghib)   rework…

Abbadi, Mordechai

(245 words)

Author(s): Pinchas Giller
Mordechai Abbadi, born in Aleppo in 1826, was a rabbi, judge, and distinguished sage. Renowned for his enormous command of legal and mystical literature, he reputedly composed his first novellae on the Talmud at the age of fifteen. His influence in the realm of Kabbala continued after his lifetime through the activities of his students Ḥayyim Saul Duwayk and Jacob Saul Duwayk (Duwayk Family), the latter of whom composed Abbadi's eulogy. Abbadi was influenced by the Bet El school of kabbalists (Bet El Kabbalists) and their quest for a purely Lurianic interpretation of Ka…
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