Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

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Subject: Jewish Studies

Executive Editor: Norman A. Stillman

The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online (EJIW) is the first cohesive and discreet reference work which covers the Jews of Muslim lands particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods. The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online is updated with newly commissioned articles, illustrations, multimedia, and primary source material. 

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C (Cairo Geniza - Capitulations agreements (Ottoman Empire) with European powers: and protection of Ottoman population groups by foreign powers)

(2,231 words)

Cairo Geniza, Cairo Geniza, Cairo Geniza, Manuscripts and manuscript collections, Ben Ezra Synagogue, Ben Ezra Synagogue  amulets in, Jaén  discovery of, Cairo Geniza, Fustat  documents/texts, Cairo Geniza, Cairo Geniza   on Abiathar, Abiathar ben Elijah ha-Kohen   al-Fāsī’s code, al-Fāsī, Isaac ben Jacob   al-Fāsī’s poems, Solomon ben Judah   on alluf title, Alluf   on Almohad persecutions of Jews, Almohads   on anti-Judaism in Islamic world, Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism   in Arabic language, Cairo Geniza   in Arabic script, Cairo Geniza   on astrology, …

C (Caprotti, Giuseppe - cemeteries: non-Muslim)

(1,590 words)

Caprotti, Giuseppe, Manuscripts and manuscript collections Capsali, Elijah, Greece (pre-1824), Music, Sambari, Joseph ben Isaac, Capsali, Elijah, Crete, Vital, David Ben Solomon Ha-Rofe Capsali, Moses ben Elijah (1420–1495), Anatolia, Millet, Ottoman Empire, Romaniots (Bene Romania), Sephardim/Sephardi Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Capsali, Elijah, Capsali, Moses ben Elijah, Crete, Rav Akçesi (Rabbi's Tax), Saporta, Ḥanokh Capsali family, Greece (pre-1824) captives  ransoming of, Algeria, Charity, Charitable Institutions and Societies in the Medieval Peri…

C (Cenival, Pierre de - Christiani, Pablo (Jacob ben Eli of Carcassonne))

(1,405 words)

Cenival, Pierre de, Ibn Mishʿal, Aaron censorship  in Europe, Printing and Printers  in Jewish communities, Salonica, Printing and Printers  in Ottoman Empire, Journalism, Printing and Printers Cent Ans d’histoire (André Chouraqui), Chouraqui, André Center for Advanced Judaic Studies (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia), Manuscripts and manuscript collections Center for Iranian Jewish Oral History (United States), Diaspora Communities Center for Piyyuṭ and Song (Ashdod), Elmaghribi, Samy (Amzallag) Center for the Young Jews of Iran, Levy, Ḥabῑb Central Asia  anti-…

C (Christianity - clothing: dress codes)

(1,673 words)

Christianity  adopted by rulers of Ethiopia, Yemen  baptism in, Romaniots (Bene Romania)  conversion of Jews to, Kirmanshah   in Albania, Albania   forced, Demography    in Iran, Tehran    in Serbia, Serbia   in Spain, Calatayud, Saragossa, Valencia  conversion of Muslims to, Toledo    see alsoMoriscos  influences of   on Islam, Academic Study of Islamicate Jewry   on Jewish literature and thought, Ibn Paqūda, Baḥya (Abū Isḥāq) ben Joseph    Andalusian Jewish culture, Literature, Hebrew Prose (medieval), Literature, Hebrew Prose (medieval)    converso culture, Usque,…

C (Club des Intimes (Salonica) - Le Commerce du Levant (newspaper, Beirut))

(1,060 words)

Club des Intimes (Salonica), Club des Intimes, Salonica, La Nation (Salonica)  opposing Zionist movement, Club des Intimes, Salonica   see alsoCercle des Intimes Club de los Lavoradores (Salonica), Balkans Club National Israélite (Beirut and Damascus), Club National Israélite (Beirut and Damascus) Club Social (Havana), Cuba Club Socialista (Salonica), Balkans Club X (Jewish social/cultural club, Istanbul), Yıldırım Sports and Youth Club Cochin (India)  Jewish community in, India   influx of European Jews, India   merchants/businessmen, Long-Distance Trade   migration…

C (commercial networks - contracts: of Zoroastrians to Islam, forced, in Iran)

(1,784 words)

commercial networks  of Jewish peddlers, Peddling   see alsotrade, networks Committee of Aid and Charity seeComité d’Aide et d’Assistance Committee of Officials of Eretz Israel (Istanbul), Palestine Committee of Officials for Jerusalem (Va‘ad Peqide Yerushalayim be-Qushṭa, Istanbul), Istanbul, Palestine, Navon, Ephraim Ben Aaron Committee of Officials (Safed), Modaʽi, Ḥayyim Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), Balkans, Capitulations, Carasso (Karasu), Emmanuel, Franco (Franko), Milasli Gad, Freemasons (Ottoman Empire and Levant), Le Jeune…

C (conversos - kira)

(1,719 words)

conversos, Duran, Simon ben Ṣemaḥ, Sephardim/Sephardi Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano)  arrests and trials by Inquisition of, Almosnino, Isaac  in Brazil, Brazil, Brazil  culture of, Christian influences on, Usque, Samuel  emergence of, Perfet, Isaac ben Sheshet  European relations of, Sephardi Impact on Islamicate Jewry  in Ferrara (Italy), Usque, Samuel, Usque, Solomon  in Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar  and Hebrew printing in Islamic world, Printing and Printers  intellectuals, Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano)  in Izmir, Shabbetay Ṣ…

C (courts of law - Czerniewski, Anton)

(1,223 words)

courts of law  of exilarchs, Exilarch and Exilarchate  Muslim   discriminatory rules for non-Muslims in, Ottoman Empire   Jews making use of    in Afghanistan, Garjī, Mullah Asher    in Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Empire    for registration of charitable foundations, Heqdesh (Qodesh, Waqf, Ḥabs)    in Yemen, Yemen   see alsorabbinic courts ‘couscous literature,’ Francophone Maghrebi Jewish Literature Coutinho, Vasco, Arzila (Aṣīla) Covo, Abraham, Covo, Raphael Asher Covo, Asher, Salonica (Thessaloniki; Selanik) Covo, Elias Judah, Balkans Covo, Elijah, Covo Family, Cov…

Celâl Nuri

(244 words)

Author(s): İlker Aytürk
A well-known  intellectual, journalist, and statesmanof his times, Celâl Nuri (İleri) (1882–1938) was born into an Ottoman bureaucratic family. He was educated at the Lycée Galatasaray and the Istanbul Law School, graduating from the latter with a doctorate in 1908. Giving up a career in the Ottoman diplomatic corps, Celâl Nuri became an eminent journalist of the late Ottoman era, both as a founder of and contributor to numerous journals and newspapers. One of them, Le Jeune Turc, an Istanbul daily in French, is known to have been secretly funded by the World Zionist Or…

Ceresi, Marcel

(329 words)

Author(s): Adam Guerin
Born in 1913, Marcel Ceresi (also known as Marcel Israel) was a prominent Communist organizer in Egypt and Italy in the twentieth century. Ceresi’s political career began as a youth coordinator of Wafd demonstrations against King Fuad in 1930. In 1936 he volunteered to fight in the Spanish Civil War as a member of the International Brigades but was denied entry into the country. Ceresi traveled extensively and was connected to other Communist parties in the Mediterranean region, maintaining international contacts in Syria, Lebanon and elsewhere. In 1939 Ceresi and Raoul Curiel founde…

Ceuta

(597 words)

Author(s): Rica Amran
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain situated on the North-African side of the Strait of Gibraltar about 61 kilometers (38 miles) northwest of Tetouan. Its population of 75,861 includes Christians, Muslims, and Jews. The name of the town goes back to Roman times, when it was called Septem (Septem Fratres; Lat. the seven neighboring hills [lit. brothers]). It already had been occupied by Carthaginians and then Greeks, and it was Byzantine at the time of the Muslim conquest. The Arabs called the town Sabta. An important port, it w…
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