Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle

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Subject: History

Edited by:  Edited by Graeme Dunphy and Cristian Bratu

The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle brings together the latest research in chronicle studies from a variety of disciplines and scholarly traditions. Chronicles are the history books written and read in educated circles throughout Europe and the Middle East in the Middle Ages. For the modern reader, they are important as sources for the history they tell, but equally they open windows on the preoccupations and self-perceptions of those who tell it. Interest in chronicles has grown steadily in recent decades, and the foundation of a Medieval Chronicle Society in 1999 is indicative of this. Indeed, in many ways the Encyclopedia has been inspired by the emergence of this Society as a focus of the interdisciplinary chronicle community.

The online version was updated in 2014 and in 2016.

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Pace di messer Iacopo da Certaldo

(287 words)

Author(s): Morreale, Laura
early 14th century. Italy. Pace di messer Iacopo da Certaldo, a politically active member of Florentine society, was named as the author of the Storia della Guerra di Semifonte (History of the War of Semifonte) , a historical narrative recounting the Florentine defeat of Semifonte in Tuscany in 1202. The author of the Storia states that the work was begun in the year 1320, although the narrative section of the oldest extant manuscript is prefaced by claims that the copy at hand was transcribed from the original by da Certaldo' son.The work begins with an extended introduction concern…
Date: 2016-10-17

Pachymeres, Georgios

(471 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Lars Martin
1242- post-1308. Byzantium. Georgios Pachymeres was born in Nicaea (today Iznik, Turkey), which after the Fourth Crusade had gradually replaced Constantinople as the most important local centre of the Byzantine Empire. He received a thorough rhetorical and literary education which found its expression in his observable preference for linguistic and verbal archaisms. One of his teachers may have been Georgios Akropolites. After the Byzantines recaptured Constantinople in 1261, Pachymeres soon became deacon and also lawyer ( dikaiophylax) at the Hagia Sophia.Besides numerous …
Date: 2016-10-17

Packington, William

(195 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Edward Donald
d. 1390. England. Credited by 16th-century antiquarian John Leland with writing an Anglo-Norman chronicle from which Leland transcribed extracts. Although few today credit Packington with the authorship, the chronicle that Leland used was discovered in the early 20th century to be that in BL, Cotton Tiberius ms. A.vii, fol. 121-99, which Taylor names the Tiberius chronicle. Once described as an Anglo-Norman prose Brut and covering the years 1042 to the early part of Edward III's reign in 1346, its sources include a version of Flores historiarum (see Roger of Wendover), the Annals of W…
Date: 2016-10-17

Page, John

(636 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Edward Donald
15th century. England. Author of The Siege of Rouen, a widely circulated 1323-line English vernacular verse chronicle of Henry V’s siege of the city between late July/early August 1418 and 19 January 1419. Page claims that he is presenting an eyewitness account ( at that sege with the kyng I lay, line 22). Bellis classifies it as an example of the 15th-century celebratory, jingoistic political poetry, such as the Agincourt Carol and the Battle of Agincourt, that was produced after English victories, observing that it borrows motifs and narrative techniques from chivalric romance. As Druk…
Date: 2016-10-17

Pagliarini, Giovanni Battista

(188 words)

Author(s): Silverman, Diana Claire
15th century. Italy. A member of Vicenza's College of Notaries, Battista Pagliarini composed his Latin Cronicae based on documents and chronicles such as that of Antonio Godi. The earliest extant manuscript, Vicenza, Biblioteca Civica Bertoliana, 409 bis, formerly of the Phillipps Collection, includes an inscription, Misser Batista Paiarin ha porta qui questo libro in casa mia. This manuscript is the basis for the recent edition by Grubb, who dates the core writing to 1497-8, although the last reference is to 1504. Addressed to deputies in charge of the munic…
Date: 2016-10-17

Paleja

(725 words)

Author(s): Kaimakamova, Miliana
10th century. Bulgaria. Written in Church Slavonic by an anonymous author of the Preslav school. A presentation of biblical history from a Christian teleological point of view. The author aimed at presenting the Old Testament as a model for the New, to prove and inculcate the concept of the supremacy of Christianity over Judaism, Islam, and polytheistic religions.In the Greek manuscript tradition, παλαιά ( Palaia, actually ή παλαιά διαθήκη, the old covanent) refers to the Old Testament itself. In the Slavonic tradition this is either translated by ветхий зав…
Date: 2016-10-17

Palencia, Alfonso Fernández de

(447 words)

Author(s): Agnew, Michael
1424–92. Castile (Iberia). Author of historical works in Latin and Castilian: a history of the reigns of Enrique IV and Isabel I; a chronicle of the war against Granada; lost Latin histories of pre-Roman and Roman Iberia; and Castilian translations of Plutarch's Lives and Josephus's The Jewish War. Palencia introduced humanistic historiography to the Iberian peninsula, although his influence in this regard was probably limited. He lived in Rome and Florence from 1442 to 1453, where he worked for Cardinal Bessarion, studied under George of Tr…
Date: 2016-10-17

Palmieri, Matteo

(240 words)

Author(s): Beyer, Hartmut
1406-75. Italy. Florentine writer and politician. Partisan of the Medici with a special relationship to Piero il Gottoso. Probably in 1446-48 he wrote his Liber de temporibus (Book of the times), a world chronicle for 1-1448, synchronizing the years from the incarnation, from the Creation and those of the emperors and popes, adding historical events in a very restricted manner. In his dedication to Piero de' Medici (whose copy is in Florence, Laurenziana, Plut. 65,45) he presents his work as a manual of chronology and not as historia. Up to 1294 he follows the chronicle of his tea…
Date: 2016-10-17

Palmieri, Mattia

(461 words)

Author(s): Beyer, Hartmut
1423-83. Italy. Born in Pisa. Papal abbreviator and secretary. Wrote De bello italico (on the Italian war) and De temporibus (on the times).The unedited ten books of the De bello italico treat in great detail the political events of Italy between 1449 and 1464. The author enjoyed a reputation as a historian in Rome, where he was protected by cardinal Prospero Colonna. The first five books, covering the time till 1458 and the wars of Alfonso of Aragon against Florence, must have been written before the election of Pius II (En…
Date: 2016-10-17

Pane, Ogerio

(414 words)

Author(s): Becker, Brian
d. ca 1230. Italy. Communal scribe, ambassador, and fourth official chronicler of Genoa. Although of modest origins, this third continuator of the Annales Ianuenses appears to have enjoyed a close relationship with Genoese nobility. He was awarded honorary offices and entrusted with delicate diplomatic missions. In 1197, Ogerio became the fourth official city chronicler of Genoa, and would continue in this capacity until 1219, and as he wrote contemporaneously with events, his section of the Annales covers precisely these years, 1197-1219.Ogerio's chronicle is most importan…
Date: 2016-10-17

Panholz, Leonhard

(236 words)

Author(s): Ikas, Wolfgang-Valentin
ca 1430/35-1498. Germany. Native of Opperkofen near Straubing in the diocese of Regensburg, studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Vienna, from which he took a bachelor's degree. From ca 1456 onwards he taught at the monasteries of Prüll and St. Salvator in Regensburg, where he is buried. In ca 1490 he composed a brief Latin continuation to Andreas of Regensburg's chronicle of the Bavarian dukes up to 1486, beginning with an account of the quarrel between Duke Ludwig VII the Bearded and his son (1438-45) . Although Panholz wrote local history, its scope went beyond Bavaria…
Date: 2016-10-17

Panodorus

(162 words)

Author(s): Lössl, Josef
5th century ad. Egypt. According to Georgios Synkellos ( Eclogue 35.20-36.5), the early 5th-century Alexandrian monk Panodorus compiled a universal chronicle in Greek which surpassed that of Anianus in length and astronomical learning. Apparently Panodorus established his own chronological system, later referred to as the Alexandrian system, calculating 5493 years from Adam to the birth of Christ whilst trying to reconcile pagan and biblical sources. Despite his admiration for this achievement, Georgios call…
Date: 2016-10-17

Papoušek, Jan, of Soběslav

(110 words)

Author(s): Bláhová, Marie
[Iohannes Papussko de Sobieslavia] d. 1454. Bohemia. Czech humanist, active at the University of Prague (1412 Bachelor, 1430 Master of Liberal Arts, 1443 vice-chancellor, 1436 and 1445 Rector). He converted to Catholicism and became Prague Canon in 1453. Author of a lost Latin work on the coronation of Ladislav Pohrobek (Posthumous) in 1453, Tractatus de coronatione Ladislai. He also collected sources for Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini's Historia Bohemica.Bláhová, MarieBibliography Literature F. Šmahel, "Enea Silvio Piccolomini a jeho Historie česká", in D. Martínková,…
Date: 2016-10-17

Parenti, Marco

(220 words)

Author(s): Lang, Heinrich
1421-97. Italy. Florentine patrician, merchant and historian. Through marriage to Caterina, daughter of the famous Alessandra Macinghi Strozzi, he gained close ties with one of the leading Florentine families; but as this alliance placed him in opposition to the Medici regime, his political career was limited. After the death of Piero de' Medici in 1469 he began to write his Ricordi storici (Historical Memoirs), but he stopped at the latest in 1478, again for political reasons. His chronologically organized work is written in Italian and covers the short …
Date: 2016-10-17

Parenti, Piero di Marco

(234 words)

Author(s): Lang, Heinrich
1449-1518. Italy. Florentine patrician and historian, author of a town chronicle. Son of Marco Parenti and Caterina degli Strozzi, daughter of the famous Alessandra. Thanks to his father's good connections, he studied with the great humanist scholars Marsilio Ficino and Demetrius Chalcondylas. In 1482 he became a member of the Signoria.In 1476 he started writing contemporarily his Storia Fiorentina (History of Florence) in a volgare (Italian) of a high standard. However he interrupted his work in 1478 and continued only in 1492 when Florentine history was in…
Date: 2016-10-17

Parfues, Jakob

(218 words)

Author(s): Weber, Miriam
late 15th century. Germany. Monk at the Benedictine monastery of Ensdorf (Oberpfalz, diocese of Regensburg). Apparently he had previously been at the monastery in Lindenhardt by Creußen; the two monasteries had close connections. In 1480 he wrote a history of the house at Ensdorf in German.The chronicle starts in 888 with the founders' genealogy and history, and relates the whole history of the monastery from its foundation in 1121 until 1472. The founding family are the Wittelsbachers, but some of the family members are confused with othe…
Date: 2016-10-17

Parian Marble

(170 words)

Author(s): Burgess, Richard W.
[Marmor Parium; Chronicum Parium] 264/3 bc. Greece. A universal chronicle in Greek, originally inscribed on a small marble stele on Paros that now survives in only two fragments, one in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, the other in the Paros Archaeological Museum. It presents a combination of Athenian and Greek political, military, religious, and literary history, starting in 1581-80 bc. Its chronology is a count-down to the time of writing, supplemented annually from 683-2 bc with the name of the Athenian archon. It also contains data on well-known mythological figure…
Date: 2016-10-17

Parisius de Cereta

(262 words)

Author(s): Beyer, Hartmut
[Parisio da Cerea] first mentioned 1233, died after 1277. Italy. Notary in Cerea with contacts to local authorities in Verona. Author of Annales veronenses (or Chronicon veronense). Parisius focuses on Cerea, Verona and the southern March, describing numerous conflicts during the middle third of the 13th century and the reign of Ezzelino III da Romano. At some point he took up the records he eventually inherited from his father, writing henceforth contemporarily with the events until 1277; a detailed historical account begins about 1230. P…
Date: 2016-10-17

Parleberg, Johannes

(259 words)

Author(s): Derwich, Marek
15th century. Poland. Around 1475 he wrote a chronicle tract entitled Cronica de ducatu Stettinensi et Pomeraniae gestorum inter Marchiones Brandenburgenses et duces Stettinenses Anno domini 1464, anchoring the rights of the dukes of Pomerania-Wolgast, Wartislaw IX and Erich II to succession after the death in 1464 of the last duke of Stettin, Otto III, in defiance of the claims of the Margrave of Brandenburg Frederick II (supported by the Emperor, Frederick III). The author cites unknown documents and historical events, drawing among other sources on the Protocollum of Augustine …
Date: 2016-10-17

Paschale Campanum

(202 words)

Author(s): Burgess, Richard W.
6th century. Italy. A Latin Easter table beginning in 464 first compiled in Campania between 512 and 518. To this Easter table the compiler added a variety of short historical notes down to 476 from a recension of the Consularia Italica. Between 476 and 512, ten random notices were added from the compiler's own knowledge and various other sources. The table was later continued down to 585 and then again to 599, and then compiled prospectively from 600 to at least 613, where the text now breaks off. The text survives in a single manusc…
Date: 2016-10-17
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