Religion Past and Present

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Subject: Religious Studies

Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Pacca, Bartolomeo

(270 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1756, Benevento – Apr 19, 1844, Rome) came from a noble family and was doctor of canon and civil law. In 1785 he was consecrated titular bishop of Damietta, and in the same year, without the recognition of the archbishop of Cologne, took office in the city as papal nuncio. Against episcopalism (II; Ems, Congress of), he vigorously represented the papal position. As nuncio in Lisbon (1794/1795–1802) he fought with equal vigor (having been made a cardinal in 1801) against P…

Pachelbel, Johann

(204 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (baptized Sep 1, 1653, Nuremberg – buried 3 Sep, 1706, Nuremberg), German organist (Organ) and composer, educated in his home town under Heinrich Schwemmer and Georg Kaspar Wecker. In 1673 Pachelbel became assistant organist at St. Stephen’s Church in Vienna, and may have studied under Johann Kaspar Kerl. In 1677 he became court organist in Eisenach, where he was the teacher of J.S. Bach’s brother, Johann Christoph. In 1678 he became organist of the Predigerkirche in Erfurt, in 16…

Pachomius Rhusanus

(209 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (1508, Zakynthos – 1553, Zakynthos), theologian and popular educator under Turkish rule. Study in Venice was followed by periods as a monk in the Iviron monastery (Athos). Through his thorough knowledge of classical, biblical, and patristic literature he became a warning voice against dangerous teachings of his time. In his book De divinarum Scripturarum utilitate (PG 98, 1333A–1360A), he recommends it as a medicine against religious and moral uncertainty, and against the collapse of language into what have become barbarian dialects.…

Pachomius, Saint

(369 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (c. 292–346, Pabau), Egyptian saint and founder of cenobitic (Cenobites) monasticism. It is reported that he came from a non-Christian family close to the Thebaid. Shortly after his conversion ¶ at the age of 20 he embraced an ascetic life as a disciple of the anchorite Palamon. His vision of a more organized form of the ascetic life led him to form his own community in 323 in the deserted village of Tabennisi. The regulated communal life that he developed there proved very attractive. By the time of his death…

Pacianus

(211 words)

Author(s): Schubert, Christoph
[German Version] (early 4th cent. – before 393), bishop of Barcelona. Nothing is known of his life apart from a few notes in Jerome (esp. Vir. ill. 106). He was married, and had a son called Dexter. He was elected bishop between 343 and 373. Considered genuine are three letters to the Novatian Sympronianus (I 4 contains the saying Christianus mihi nomen est, catholicus vero cognomen), following on from Tertullian and Cyprian of Carthage in attacking Novatianism, the Paraenesis sive exhortatorius libellus ad paenitentiam, and the sermon De baptismo. These writings are important evid…

Pacifism

(749 words)

Author(s): Becker, Johannes M.
[German Version] The human longing for peace is as old as conflict and war. In recent decades the qualitative difference of the Second World War with its destruction of the civilian population, sometimes deliberate, and the increased capacity for mass annihilation, especially by nuclear weapons (II), have given it new life. Pacifism (from Lat. pax, “peace”) means a radically idealistic way of life that categorically rejects all use of force or violence on ethical or religious grounds and calls for unconditional readiness for peace. The concept of p…

Pack Affairs (Packsche Händel)

(268 words)

Author(s): Wartenberg, Günther
[German Version] In the spring of 1528, a political confrontation over religion seriously threatened the peace of the Empire. Otto v. Pack ¶ (c. 1484–1537), vice-chancellor in Dresden, reported to Landgrave Philip of Hesse concerning an alleged alliance of Catholic princes and bishops (Archduke Ferdinand, Duke George the Bearded of Saxony, Bavaria, Brandenburg, Mainz, Bamberg, Salzburg, Würzburg) formed in Breslau (today Wrocław) in May of 1527 with the goal of ousting Philip and Elector John the Constant and crushing…

Paderborn

(569 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian W.
[German Version] Paderborn, city at the springs of the Pader River; archiepiscopal see since 1930. The population was 144,258 in December of 2006. Since 1994 (when the see of Hildesheim was transferred to Hamburg), the ecclesiastical province has comprised the dioceses of Erfurt, Fulda, and Magdeburg. The first documentary mention of Paderborn as an imperial stronghold (the Kaiserpfalz) dates from 777, in the context of an imperial diet held by Charlemagne. Charlemagne’s meeting with Pope Leo III in Paderborn in 799 produced an agreement concerning im…

Padmasambhava

(267 words)

Author(s): Sørensen, Per K.
[German Version] The Indian master and sage Padmasambhava (Sanskrit: “Lotus Born”; in Tibet also: ¶ Guru Rinpoche, “Precious Guru”) is the most significant figure connected with the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet in the 8th century; he is even considered its originator there. Although his character as a historical figure is not clear, Tibetan historical works and hagiographies paint a picture of a Tantric master (Tantra) responsible for subjugating the omnipresent demons and spirits of Tibet. According to…

Padre Cícero

(248 words)

Author(s): Hoornaert, Eduardo
[German Version] (Romão Baptista; Mar 24, 1844, Crato – Jul 20, 1934, Juazeiro), Brazilian priest. After his parents’ early death, he was brought up in the dry sertão of the province of Ceará by pious aunts, who sent him to the seminary in the provincial capital of Fortaleza. At the age of 26 he was ordained priest and installed as chaplain in his home region, in Juazeiro, where he was given seven slaves to serve him. In a dream Jesus sent him to the poor. He thereupon freed his slaves and administered the sacraments with…

Padroado-Propaganda Conflict

(452 words)

Author(s): Karotemprel, Sebastian
[German Version] Padroado (Patronage) and Jus Patronatus are terms used to refer to the agreements between the popes and the sovereigns of Spain and Portugal (papal bulls of Pope Martin V and Romanus Pontifex [1455] of Pope Nicholas V), regarding the right to occupy the lands they discovered in exchange for the duty and privileges of supporting and administering Catholic missions in America, Africa, and Asia. Portugal was granted the right of presenting candidates for episcopal and other offices a…

Páez, Pedro

(441 words)

Author(s): Böll, Verena
[German Version] (Pais, Pero; 1564, Olmeda, Spain – May 20, 1622, Gorgora, Ethiopia), entered the Jesuit order in 1582, studied in Coimbra, and in 1587 was chosen for mission. He traveled through Goa (1588–1589) and Hormuz (1589), was imprisoned in Sana’a, and did missionary work in India (1596–1601). From 1603 he was a missionary in Ethiopia, and until 1619 superior of the Ethiopian mission. In 1618 he was the first European to explore the source of the Nile, and in 1622 he baptized the emperor S…

Pafnuty of Borovsk, Saint

(182 words)

Author(s): Smith, T. Allan
[German Version] (1394 Kudinovo – May 1, 1477, Borovsk). In 1414 Pafnuty entered the Vysotsky Monastery in Borovsk, founded in 1374 by a disciple of Sergius of Radonezh. In 1434 he was named hegumen of the monastery. In 1444 he resigned his office and founded a monastery outside of Borovsk dedicated to the nativity of the Theotokos. Because he supported Prince Dmitry Shemyaka (1420–1453) in the civil war that rocked Muscovy and quarreled with Jonas, the metropolitan of Moscow (died 1461), the Mosc…

Pagandom

(562 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Gebhard
[German Version] As a term in the systematic study of religion, pagandom (like Ger. Heidentum) is inappropriate, since it inherently conveys connotations of religious “otherness” and the truth of Christian theology. As a descriptive historical term, it is useful for religions of antiquity other than Judaism and Christianity when discussing their conflicts with Christianity; this is also the context in which the term originated. Initially the Latin equivalent pagani served as a (pejorative) term describing the rural population (only recently converted to Christia…

Paganism

(2,417 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Hubert | Becker, Dieter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History – III. Missiology I. Religious Studies Paganism (from Lat. paganus “pagan, rustic, civilian”; Pagandom) is the modern scientific term for the deliberate resumption (“reception”) or revival (“revitalization,” “reconstruction”) of ancient or recent ethnic religious traditions or elements of them (Cults; myths, symbols) outside Christianity and biblical Judaism. Although the religious occupation of an outgroup is structurally conceivable in other exclusive religious ¶ communities, such as Judaism or Islam, paganism …

Pagninus, Santes

(110 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Santi Pagnini; Oct 18, 1470, Lucca – Aug 24, 1541, Lyon), Dominican friar who taught oriental languages in Rome; he was in Avignon from 1521 to 1524, and then in Lyon. He translated the Bible from the original languages into Latin (Lyon, 1527), with a strictly literal rendering of the Old Testament. He also wrote a Hebrew dictionary (Lyon, 1529) as well as extensive works on the OT. He followed ¶ Augustine in his emphasis on the mystical sense of Scripture. Siegfried Raeder Bibliography T.M. Centi, “L’attività letteraria di Santi Pagnini nel campo delle scienze bibliche,” A…

Pagoda

(193 words)

Author(s): Deeg, Max
[German Version] The Portuguese word “pagoda” was probably borrowed from Singhalese dāgēba by way of a syllabic metathesis (corresponding to Sanskrit dhātugarbha, “seed of the relic,” relic chamber; cf. Sanskrit stūpa , Pāli thūpa) and applied to the Buddhist places of worship in East and Southeast Asia (as in the case of Sanskrit matrin, “minister”: mandarin). The East Asian languages, on the other hand, do not employ “pagoda” but terms that correspond to stūpa, as for instance Chinese ta. From the perspective of art history, the pagoda developed from the basic tumulus…

Pai-lien chiao

(7 words)

[German Version] Bailian Jiao

Pain

(743 words)

Author(s): Stock, Konrad
[German Version] Within the semantic field of the different modes of experiencing harm or ill-being, pain refers first of all to the sensation felt by the injured, sick, or unsound body (Suffering, Sickness and healing), but then also, and especially in poetic language, to the experiencing of separation, mourning and grief, and compassion ( Welt-Schmerz [v. Hartmann]). I. The history of pain research since J. Müller ( Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, vol. II, 1840; cf. N. Grahek, “Schmerz III. Naturwissenschaft und Medizin,” HWP VIII, 1323–1330) has shown that pain repre…

Paine, Thomas

(216 words)

Author(s): Walters, Kerry S.
[German Version] ( Jan 29, 1737, Norfolk, England – Jun 8, 1809, NY), deist (Deism) and political agitator. His parents were Quakers. In 1774 he sailed for the American colonies, leaving behind him an unhappy marriage, unpaid debts, and a dubious reputation. In the New World his luck changed dramatically: his pamphlet Common Sense (1776), the first public cry for American independence, was an instant success. He continued his work as a political polemicist with the Crisis papers, written during the War of Independence, and The Rights of Man (1792), an uncompromising defense of the…
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