Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: A. Chaniotis, T. Corsten, N. Papazarkadas, and R.A. Tybout

The Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum systematically collects newly published Greek inscriptions as well as publications on previously known documents. It presents complete Greek texts of all new inscriptions with a critical apparatus; it summarizes new readings, interpretations, and studies of known inscriptions, and occasionally presents the Greek text of these documents.
The online edition includes all SEG volumes, and will incorporate all future volumes in the series. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online is automatically updated upon publication of the annual volume.

SEG Search Tips

Subscriptions: see

The links below offer several ways to browse the many SEG entries.

  • Provenance leads to an overview of regions (themselves ordered by larger 'super regions'). Each region is hyperlinked to a list of places followed by the SEG entries that cover inscriptions that come from that place.
  • Century leads to a list of centuries, indicating the age of the inscriptions. Click on a century to see a list of search results: all SEG entries that discuss an inscription from that century. There is also a list of all undated inscriptions.
  • Type leads to a short list of the four types of inscriptions that SEG Online distinguishes: Dedications, Epitaphs, Public documents, and Miscellaneous. Again, clicking on a type brings up a list of search results: all SEG entries that cover inscriptions of that type.
  • Publication Year leads to an overview of SEG volumes order by publication year. This is the publication year of the publications covered in the SEG volumes and not the publication yeaer of the SEG volumes themselves! Clicking on a year brings up a list of search results: all SEG entries that cover publications that saw the light in that year.
  • Volume leads to an overview of SEG volumes ordered by volume number. Clicking on a volume number brings up a list of search results: all SEG entries that belong to that volume.

P.S. There is no browse list of all thematic entries ordered by SEG entry number. Instead, the tab 'Indexes' offers an overview of all themes covered in these entries. It is hoped that this offers a more useful overview.


How can you find out if a certain inscription is discussed in SEG?

First, you need to know which inscription you are looking for. Inscription are often identified by the number that they have in the work in which they are published ('edition'). For example, "I.Hadrianopolis 67" refers to inscription 67 in Hadrianopolis I : Inschriften aus Paphlagonia by E.Laflı, E.Christof, and M.Metcalfe (Oxford 2012).

SEG has concordances that allow you to look up which inscription is discussed in which SEG entry. These concordances take the form of a table. In the left column, you will find the inscriptions, listed by edition. In the right column, you will find the SEG entries. They are hyperlinks; click on them to go to the entry.

The concordances can be found here: Epigraphic corpora and other text editions

What happens when an inscription does not yet have a number?

Epigraphic publications - monographs and journal articles - often discuss inscriptions that are not yet published in an edition. It may be that the inscription is newly found, or that it takes some time to publish the edition. Of course, such publications are of epigraphic interest and therefore discussed in SEG. But how to refer to them when they don't yet have a number?

In SEG, entries that discuss publications with such otherwise unpublished inscriptions describe these inscriptions and give their Greek text. For example, M.Salliora-Oikonomakou, Ο Αρχαιος δημος του Σουνιου (Toumbes, 2004) discusses a stone fragment found near the mining works at Megala Peuka. This publication is discussed in SEG 54 250. The SEG entry names M.Salliora-Oikonomakou, Sounion as the editio princeps, describes the fragment, and gives its text.

What happens when an unpublished inscription is referred to in a later SEG volume?

In that case, the inscription is identified by the number of the SEG entry that described it first (because it covered the publication that discusses the inscription). This is possible because the combination of SEG volume and SEG entry number is unique.

This is the case in the example above. SEG 55 271 discusses the same inscription as SEG 54 250. It refers to the inscription as "SEG 54 250". to differentiate between the entry 54 250 and the inscription 54 250, SEG Online uses the marker iSEG. The inscription in the example above is therefore named "iSEG 54 250".

Identification of inscriptions can be complicated. SEG 55 271 for example discusses E.Kakavoyiannis, Μέταλλα 49/50 which also considers it to be the editio princeps. Both publications give the inscription a number. So even if otherwise unpublished inscription has an identification number, SEG can not necessarily use it.

Another example occurs in SEG 59 1470. This entry notes that the inscription with the number iSEG 43 916 is now edited and published in an epigraphic corpus: Hadrianopolis I : Inschriften aus Paphlagonia by E.Laflı, E.Christof, and M.Metcalfe (Oxford 2012). It is I.Hadrianopolis 67 from the example above. Its previous editio princeps was C.Marek, Stadt, Ära und Territorium in Pontus-Bithynia und Nord-Galatia (Tübingen 1993). This publication is discussed in SEG 43 916 and so the publication was previously referred to as "iSEG 43 916", and henceforth as "I.Hadrianopolis 67".

A list of references to unpublished inscriptions can be found here: First time publications of inscriptions


There are two kinds of SEG entries: epigraphic entries and thematic entries.

Epigraphic entries focus on the text of the inscriptions. Thematic entries cover (historical) subjects on the basis of epigraphic evidence.

Both kinds of entries have keywords. There are eight classes of keywords:

  • Names
  • Kings
  • Emperors
  • Geography
  • Religion
  • Military
  • Greek and Latin Terms
  • Selected Topics

The keywords can be found at the foot of every SEG entry. They can also be browsed in lists of keywords. These lists take the form of a table. Theleft coulmn gives the keyword. The right column gives the SEG entry. This is a hyperlink: click on it to go to the entry.

Below, the epigraphic keywords are given first, followed by the thematic ones. The order is alphabetical: first the Latin alphabet, then the Greek. Characters such as digamma or koppa are given last.

Keywords (Inscriptions)

Keywords (Themes)

How to

How to use SEG? How to search and browse? What does an SEG entry look like? The following section gives some short answers.

Search and browse

The home page of Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online on BrillOnline Reference Works has four tabs.

  1. Notes for readers
  2. Browse
  3. Concordances and Keywords
  4. How to

The first tab links to preliminary and introductory documents, such as the list of commonly used abbreviations of epigraphic literature.

The second tab lists the entries by the type, provenance or age of the inscriptions discussed in them, by SEG volume in which they were published, and by the year in which the resources that they discuss were published.

The third tab allows you to find out which inscription is covered in which SEG entries. It also allows you to browse by keyword.

You found the fourth tab, because you are on it!

These tabs are one of the two main ways of browsing, or navigating Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online. The other main way of navigating Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online is the set of links found at the head and foot of every entry: the previous and next buttons. There is also always a link back to the third tab, with the header browse.

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online can also be searched. The search bar at the top of every page allows you to perform a full text search. You can search on entry number, for example, or Greek word, or a phrase that might occur in the editors' comments. A more detailed explanation of the search function can be found here.

The structure of SEG entries

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum systematically collects newly published Greek inscriptions as well as publications on previously known documents. It presents complete Greek texts of all new inscriptions with a critical apparatus; it summarizes new readings, interpretations, and studies of known inscriptions, and occasionally presents the Greek text of these documents.

An entry in SEG therefore has three main components:

  1. an editorial component, consisting of the entry text
  2. a bibliographical component, listing the publications discussed in an entry
  3. an epigraphic or thematic component, concerning the inscriptions or themes discussed in these publications and hence in the entry

The editorial component

This is where the editors of Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum discuss epigraphic publications, summarize new readings and present inscription texts. It has a header Entry. If the entry presents a Greek inscription, there will be a subcomponent with the header Inscription, often followed by a subcomponent Apparatus criticus.

The entry is followed by a subcomponent Entry metadata

where information is listed like the entry ID, publication year, type (epigraphic or thematic), and main inscription or theme.

The bibliographic component

This component, with the header Bibliography lists the resources, such as monographs and journal articles, that are discussed in the entry.

This information will be added gradually over the coming months, starting with the most recent SEG volumes.

Listed resources are openURLs, meaning that you can click on them to see if your library holds them, either in printed or in electronic format (if you are a user within an institutional environment and if your institution has activated the openURL functionality).

Note that epigraphic corpora (i.e. inscription text editions) are not included in the bibliography, because they are presented in the List of abbreviations if newly published. After that, the corpora are included in the list of corpora.

The epigraphic or thematic component

In this component, with the header Inscription metadata, information like the inscription ID, inscription type, date, place, language, poetry or prose, and index terms are listed.

Inscriptions are identified by their number in the corpus that published them. If newly published, for example in a journal article and therefore not yet included in a corpus, the inscriptions are identified by the number of the SEG entry that discusses them. To distinguish entry ID from inscription ID (entries can discuss multiple inscriptions), the inscription ID is given as, for example, iSEG 59 123.

The inscription type is one of four: dedication, epitaph, public document, or miscellaneous.

Index terms have eight types, as listed below. The left column gives the headers as used in the online edition; the right the (often longer) headers and subdivisions as used in the print edition:

Names A. Names of Men and Women; Mythological Names and Personifications; B. Names of Ships, Animals and mines. C. Latin Names; Patronymic Adjectives
Kings Kings, Dynasts and their Families
Emperors Roman Emperors and their Families
Geography A. Geographical Names (except Attica). B. Attic Tribes, Demes etc. C. Tribes, Demes outside Attica. D. Latin Geographical Names
Religion Religious Terms
Military Military (and paramilitary) Terms. A. Greek World. B. Roman World; Latin Words
Greek and Latin Terms Important Greek Words; Latin words
Selected Topics Selected Topics

The information in the Inscription metadata and Entry metadata components is linked. Click on it to go concordance and keywords lists. For example, SEG 60 65 discusses an inscription identified as "I.Eleusis 28". This is number 28 in Die Inschriften von Ephesos by H. Wankel and R. Merkelbach (Bonn 1979-1981). The inscription ID links to a file listing all references to inscriptions in this corpus in Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. The file has the form of a table: in the left column the inscription IDs, right the SEG entries. The latter are also hyperlinks, back to the entries.