A ‘Crusade’ is defined in the narrower sense as a military campaign initiated by the medieval Church against ‘infidels’, i.e. ‘heathens’ and ‘heretics’, but historically it refers to the campaigns of the western Christians aimed at regaining the ‘Holy Land’ between the 11th and 15th cents. Of the numerous campaigns in this latter sense, the map shows those counted by canonical tradition as the first t…
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“The first three Crusades (1096–1192)”, in:
Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World, Edited by: Anne-Maria Wittke, Eckart Olshausen, Richard Szydlak, in collaboration with: Vera Sauer and other specialists.
Consulted online on 21 March 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2214-8647_bnps3_BNPA248>