The Roman Empire in the Civil War 49–45 BC
(2,080 words)

The causes and provocations of wars have been a constant subject of lively discussion since Thucydides, and the Civil War brought about by Caesar is no exception. One crucial cause of this war was probably the circumstance that Caesar ran the risk, in his confrontation with opponents in the Senate and with Pompey, of losing his political identity and with it his dignitas. However, the war was provoked by the senatus consultum ultimum issued by the Senate on 7 January 49 BC, which aimed at forcing the proconsul to relinquis…

Cite this page
Olshausen, E., “The Roman Empire in the Civil War 49–45 BC”, in: Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World, Edited by: Anne-Maria Wittke, Eckart Olshausen, Richard Szydlak, in collaboration with: Vera Sauer and other specialists. Consulted online on 21 May 2018 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: 9789004167834, 20091241

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