The unification and expansion of the Arabs under the first four caliphs (632–661)
The first four caliphs, successors of Muḥammad (d. 632):
ʿAbdallāh Abū Bakr (632–634)
ʿUmar ibn al-Ḫaṭṭāb (634–644)
ʿUtmān ibn ʿAffān (644–656)
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (656–661)
Muḥammad met such resistance to his doctrine in Makka/Mecca, the town of his birth, that he emigrated with his followers in 622, after long preparations, to the oasis city of Yaṭrīb, subsequently al-Madīna (‘City [of the Prophet]’), where he had engendered great hopes as a mediator in the conflicts between various Arab tribes of the region.
To bring some degre…
Cite this page
“The unification and expansion of the Arabs under the first four caliphs (632–661)”, in:
Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World, Edited by: Anne-Maria Wittke, Eckart Olshausen, Richard Szydlak, in collaboration with: Vera Sauer and other specialists.
Consulted online on 21 March 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2214-8647_bnps3_BNPA242>