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(1,741 words)

Author(s): Bat-El, Outi
Reduplicated words exhibit one or more identical segments in a designated position. Hebrew reduplication involves only consonants (e.g., משורר mešorer ‘poet’, דפדף difdef ‘to turn pages, leaf through a book’), though reduplication in other languages may involve both vowels and consonants (e.g., CVC in Agta: puspusa ‘cats’, kalkaldin ‘goats’). Not every pair of identical consonants in a word is due to reduplication, since the process of reduplication is restricted by position. In Hebrew, a pair (or pairs) of identical consonants that constitu…

Denominal Verbs: Modern Hebrew

(2,421 words)

Author(s): Bat-El, Outi
Denominal verbs are verbs which are derived from nouns or adjectives (henceforth: bases or base words), as in סבון sabon ‘soap’ > סיבן siben ‘to soap’, טלפון telefon ‘phone’ > טילפן tilfen ‘to phone’, and חם x̱am ‘hot’ > חימם ximem ‘to heat’. Regardless of whether the base word is native or borrowed, all denominal verbs fit into the binyan system (Binyanim). 1. The binyan of denominal verbs The binyan (verb template) of denominal verbs is usually piʿel, whose productivity has been attributed to the relative simplicity of its morpho-logical and morpho-phonological structu…


(1,006 words)

Author(s): Bat-El, Outi
The notion of ‘neutralization’ in phonology refers to the loss or merger of phonemic contrast, such that two distinct phonemes (input) become identical in their surface representation (output). A distinction between input and output implies two phonological levels of representation (Phonology, Generative), and thus neutralization is a byproduct of phonological processes or the relation between these two levels. One such process is voicing assimilation in Modern Hebrew casual speech (Barkai and Horvath 1978), in which voicing contrast is neutralized. Re…


(744 words)

Author(s): Bat-El, Outi
A blend (Hebrew הלחם helx̱em), also known as a portmanteau word, is formed by combining two independent words into one, like English tángelotangeríne + pómelo and Hebrew פומלית pomelít ⇐ פומלה poméla + אשכולית ʾeškolít ‘a hybrid of pomelo and grapefruit’. The semantic properties of a blend depend on the relation between its two base words. The relation can be endocentric, where one of the base words functions as a semantic head, or exocentric, where both words have the same semantic status. Blends are somewhat like compounds, but with fewer restrictions. While all Hebrew com…

Phonological Competence, Acquisition of

(2,367 words)

Author(s): Bat-El, Outi
The development of children’s phonology is guided by hierarchies of universal markedness constraints. For example, a CV syllable is acquired before a CVC syllable and the consonant t is acquired before č. Markedness constraints are based on typological implicational relations (e.g., if a language has č it also has t, but not vice versa), acoustic accessibility, and articulatory complexity (de Lacy 2006). Children’s phonological development is studied with reference to the different layers of word structure: prosodic word (number of syllables), stress (metr…