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Thompson, Francis

(157 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1859, Preston, Lancashire – Nov 13, 1907, London), English Roman Catholic poet. In 1885, having failed to become a priest or doctor, and having succumbed to opium addiction, he relocated from his native Lancashire to London. Here, while living in filth, despair and penury, he came to know Wilfred Meynell, critic and editor of the Catholic magazine Merry England. Meynell befriended Thompson and was the first to recognize his poetic genius, which arose from a combination of his destitution and Christian faith. Before his premature d…

Spencer, John

(171 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1630, Bocton, Kent, England, baptized Oct 31, 1630 – May 27, 1693, probably Cambridge, England), English theologian and Hebraist. He ¶ served as fellow (1655) and master (1667) of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge, before being appointed dean of Ely (1677). His most influential work, De Legibus Hebraeorum (1685), traced the religious antiquities of the ancient Hebrews and laid the foundation for the subsequent emergence of the study of comparative religion. He was the first scholar to observe the similarities between Hebre…

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] The SPG was established under royal charter by T. Bray in 1701 to supply the “want of learned and orthodox ministers” in the plantations, colonies, and “factories beyond the seas.” The rapidly expanding British Empire presented both challenges and opportunities for the Church of England. The SPG set out to “settle the State of Religion” for the colo­nists before undertaking “the conversion of the Natives.” During the 18th century the SPG’s efforts focused on the American colonies,…

Liddon, Henry Parry

(182 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 20, 1829, North Stoneham, Hampshire – Sep 9, 1890, Weston-super-Mare, Gloucestershire) was an Anglican cleric. Educated at Oxford, he was ordained in 1852. After a succession of church appointments, he became, in 1870, a canon of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, where his able preaching attracted sizable congregations. A leader of the catholic revival (Oxford Movement), Liddon opposed the advance of both its ritualist and liberal-Catholic wings; the publication of Lux Mundi (1889) proved particularly distressing as well as the growing use of criti…

Ramsey, Arthur Michael

(136 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1904, Cambridge, UK – Apr 23, 1988, Oxford, UK), archbishop of Canterbury, was a much beloved and admired priest, theologian, and bishop of broad, yet traditional, Anglo-Catholic leanings. After Cambridge Ramsey was ordained in the Church of England and served in both parish and university appointments. In 1952 Ramsey became bishop of Durham, in 1956 archbishop of York, and in 1961 archbishop of Canterbury, where he labored tirelessly in mission work and the wider Anglica…

Sancroft, William

(205 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1617, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England – Nov 24, 1693, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England), archbishop of Canterbury and Nonjuror. Fellow of Emmanuel College in Cambridge from 1642 to 1651, he fled to the Continent after being rejected from his Cambridge fellowship by the Puritans. After the Restoration in 1660, he gained rapid preferment in the Church, being elevated to archbishop in 1668. While in office, he labored in various ways to strengthen the spiritual and political …

Law, William

(253 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1686, King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire – Apr 9, 1761, King's Cliffe), Nonjuror and English theologian. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1711. In 1714, upon the accession of George I, Law refused the Oath of Allegiance, was deprived of his fellowship, and joined the Jacobites (Jacobitism). He later served as private tutor to the Gibbons family in Putney. In 1740, he retired to his birthplace, where he became domestic chaplain to a small ho…

Neale, John Mason

(178 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1818, London – Aug 6, 1866, East Grinstead, West Sussex), Anglican author and hymn writer. Having been influenced by the Catholic revival (High Church movement [I]), at Cambridge he helped found the Camden Society. Though ordained in 1841, ill-health prevented his installation into a parish. From 1846 on he served as warden of Sackville College, Sussex. Here, he divided his time between writing and the Sisterhood of St. Margaret, which (in 1855) he founded to educate girl…

Marsh, Herbert

(160 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 10, 1757, Faversham, England – May 1, 1839, Peterborough, England), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Cambridge, in 1779 he became a fellow of St. John's College. While studying in Germany under J.D. Michaelis, he was exposed to the new biblical scholarship, later translating Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament. In 1807 Marsh was appointed Lady Margaret Professor at Cambridge. With his enthusiastically received lectures on biblical criticism (1809–1816), he was among the first to popularize the new German…

Thornton, Henry

(131 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1760, London – Jan 16, 1815, Kensington Gore), philanthropist, banker, member of parliament, and abolitionist (Abolitionism). Younger son of the wealthy evangelical merchant John Thornton, he worked in banking before being elected member of parliament in 1782. His writings on economic affairs were much admired. In Parliament he was active in humanitarian affairs and, as a member of the celebrated Clapham Sect, joined with W. Wilberforce in advancing the abolitionist cause…

Watson, Richard

(111 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 22, 1781, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire – Jan 8, 1833, London), Wesleyan Methodist theologian (Methodists: I). Watson was a member of a small group of clergy and laity that contributed to the formation of Wesleyan Methodist identity, following the death of J. Wesley and its separation from the Church of England. Appointed to a succession of influential positions in the Church, he also published widely, clarifying and extending Wesley’s theology. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works include: Theological Institutes, 6 vols., 1823–1829 On Watson: T. Jackson, M…

Temple, William

(162 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Oct 15, 1881, Exeter – Oct 26, 1944, Westgate-on-Sea). After leaving Oxford, Temple rose quickly through a succession of senior appointments in the Church of England, including bishop of ¶ Manchester (1921) and archbishop of York (1929), before being elevated to Canterbury (1942). His contributions to the various debates over social, international, and economic issues were especially respected. Active in the early ecumenical movement, he helped to advance both the Faith and Order and the Life and Work Movemen…

Maurice, Frederick Denison

(363 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1805, Normanston, Suffolk, England – Apr 1, 1872, Cambridge, England), Anglican theologian. Raised as a Unitarian (Unitarians/Universalists), Maurice first studied law at Cambridge and, after leaving without taking a degree, he studied theology at Oxford. He was ordained in the Church of England in 1834. After serving in a parish and as chaplain at Guy's Hospital, London, he was elected professor of English literature and history at King's College, London. Six years later…

Seabury, Samuel

(110 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 30, 1729, Groton, CT – Feb 25, 1796, New London, CT). After ordination in the Church of England (1753), Seabury served as a missionary in several American parishes. During the American Revolution (North America: I, 2), he remained a Loyalist. Nominated the first bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church, he was consecrated in Aberdeen in 1784 by bishops of the Scottish Episcopal Church. He then became rector of St. James’ parish church, New London, bishop of Connecticut, and (1790) bishop of Rhode Island. Grayson Carter Bibliography E.E. Beardsley, Life and Corre…

Raikes, Robert

(164 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1735, Gloucester – Apr 5, 1811, Gloucester), founder of the Sunday School movement. Raikes inherited a successful newspaper, the Gloucester Journal, and used the proceeds to promote a variety of philanthropic causes, especially prison reform. In 1780 he and a local curate established a Sunday School in Gloucester, and Raikes publicized its opening in the Journal. The idea attracted wide attention, and Sunday Schools were quickly set up throughout Britain, Ireland, and America. J. Wesley remarked that the schools were “one of th…

Laud, William

(275 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Oct 7, 1573, Reading, England – Jan 10, 1645, London), archbishop of Canterbury. Educated at St. John's College, Oxford, he opposed, early in life, the prevailing Calvinistic theology. Of considerable talent and learning, he was appointed to a rapid succession of ecclesiastical appointments, including dean of Gloucester (1616), bishop of St. David's (1621), Bath and Wells (1626), and London (1628), and finally archbishop of Canterbury (1633). His various attempts to impose liturg…

Taylor, Jeremy

(269 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug, 15, 1613, Cambridge, UK – Aug 13, 1667, Lisburn, Ireland). The son of a local barber, Taylor studied at Caius College, Cambridge, before becoming a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford (1636). He was then appointed chaplain to archbishop W. Laud and, somewhat later, to Charles I; in 1638 he became rector of Uppingham, Rutland. He was awarded a doctorate for his work, The Sacred Order and Offices of Episcopacy (1642). While serving as royal chaplain during the Civil War, he was captured and imprisoned. After his release, he lived quietly in secl…

Oman, John Wood

(186 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] ( Jul 23, 1860, Orkney, Scotland – May17, 1939, Cambridge, England), Presbyterian theologian. Oman studied in Edinburgh and Heidelberg, and served churches in Scotland and England prior to becoming professor (1907), and principal (1922) of Westminster College, Cambridge. Alarmed at the crisis then confronting Christianity, Oman developed an interest in F.D.E. Schleiermacher, and his model of the inner authority of truth; Oman translated ¶ Schleiermacher’s Über die Religion (1799 text, ET: On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers, 1988; 1831 text, ET: Sp…

Underhill, Evelyn

(160 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1875, Wolverhampton – Jun 15, 1941, London), author of spiritual works. Educated at King’s College, London, in 1907 she experienced a religious conversion of a mystical nature. Her early spiritual views were described in her first book, Mysticism (1911, Mysticism). Before long she met Friedrich v. Hügel, who would later become her spiritual director. Under his influence, her interest in historical Christianity developed so that she abandoned her mystical, intellectual, Neo-Platonist views in favor of a more pra…

Nonjurors

(549 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] The revolution of 1688, though peaceful, brought about important constitutional reform in England (III, 1.b): no longer did the Crown rule by divine hereditary right, but by the will of Parliament. The Nonjurors, or those members of the Church of England who refused to subscribe to the oaths of allegiance on the grounds that they violated their previous oaths to James II and his successors, opposed this. They included the archbishop of Canterbury (W. Sancroft); the bishops of Ches…
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