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Simeon, Charles

(169 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1759, Reading, Berkshire – Nov 13, 1836, Cambridge, UK), English evangelical clergyman. In 1782 he was made a fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and, in the following year, appointed vicar of Holy Trinity Church. Despite initial opposition, Simeon persevered, eventually becoming one of the most influential figures in the Church of England. His rise to prominence was due to a combination of influences, including his innovative parish ministry, his skill in nurturing seve…

Rowntree, John William

(158 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 4, 1868, York – Mar 9, 1905, New York). Born into a prominent Quaker family, he left Bootham School, York, in 1886 to enter the family cocoa business. In 1892 he married Constance Naish (1871–1928) of Bristol, with whom he had five children. Beginning in 1893, Rowntree provided inspired and energetic leadership to the Quaker cause, especially through his promotion of adult schools as a means of securing an education for lay ministry. He also published widely, including Present Day Papers (1898–1899), A History of the Adult School Movement (1903), and Palestine Notes

Pearson, John

(172 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1613, Great Snoring, Norfolk – Jul 16, 1686, Chester), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Eton and at Queens’ and King’s Colleges, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1639, but had little experience of parish ministry. As a result of his support of the Royalist cause in the Civil War, he was deprived of his appointments; he lived quietly in London during the Commonwealth (O. Cromwell). At the Restoration, he was appointed to a quick succession of Cambridge honors, incl…

Paley, William

(318 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jul, 1743, Peterborough, UK – May 25, 1805, Lincoln, UK), Anglican theologian, who was educated by his father and then studied at Cambridge before being elected Fellow of Christ’s College there in 1766. In his first book The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785), which later became a favorite educational resource, Paley outlined a system of utilitarian ethics (Utilitarianism; see also England, Theology in) in which he anticipated many of the themes of his contemporary, J. Bentham). Paley proved great originality in his Horae Paulinae (1790) in which…

Sharp, Granville

(110 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 10, 1735, Durham, England – Jul 6, 1813, Fulham, a borough of London), evangelical and abolitionist (Slavery). In 1765 he became involved in opposing the slave trade, advancing numerous legal ¶ cases on behalf of slaves held in England. His efforts culminated in the famous “Fall Somerset” case of 1772 which outlawed the forcible removal of slaves from the country. Sharp also developed an interest in African culture and assisted in the relocation of a number of freed slaves to Sierra Leone. Grayson Carter Bibliography Memoirs of Granville Sharp, ed. T. Burgess, 1820 E.…

Dissolution of the Monasteries Act

(275 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] As the result of moral, economic, political and religious factors, Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries in England and Wales in the 1530s. Assisted by T. Cromwell, the process continued intermittently. In 1536, Parliament passed an act – the co-called “Dissolution of the Monasteries Act” – that led to the closure of around 250 of the smaller houses of the orders (roughly a third of the …

Temple

(166 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[English Version] Temple, William (15.10.1881 Exeter – 26.10.1944 Westgate-on-Sea). Nach dem Studium in Oxford bekleidete T. eine Reihe hoher Ämter in der Church of England, u.a. war T. Bf. von Manchester (1921) und Erzbf. von York (1929), bis er 1942 zum Erzbf. von Canterbury aufstieg. Seine Beiträge zu Kontroversen um soziale, internationale und ökonomische Themen fanden bes. Beachtung. T. war in der frühen ökumenischen Bewegung aktiv und unterstützte die Bewegungen »Faith and Order« (Bewegung fü…

Non-Jurors

(590 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[English Version] . In Folge der Revolution von 1688 kam es, obwohl sie friedlich verlief, zu wichtigen konstitutionellen Reformen in England (: III.,1., d): Die Krone übte die Herrschaft nicht länger aufgrund göttlichen Erbrechts, sondern aufgrund parlamentarischen Willens aus. Die N., d.h. diejenigen Mitglieder der Church of England, die die Leistung von Treueeiden mit der Begründung verweigerten, dies verletze ihre vorher auf Jakob II. und seine Nachfolger geleisteten Treueeide, widersetzten si…

Pulververschwörung

(180 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[English Version] . Am 25.3.1605 mietete eine kleine Gruppe von Katholiken einen Keller unter dem Londoner Parlamentsgebäude, wo sie Schießpulver einlagerten. Obwohl Guy Fawkes (1570–1606) nicht deren Anführer war, ist er das bekannteste Mitglied der Gruppe. Ziel der P. war es, am 5.11.1605 – dem Tag der Parlamentseröffnung – das Parlamentsgebäude in die Luft zu sprengen und so gleichzeitig den anwesenden König Jakob I. und die Parlamentsmitglieder zu ermorden, in der Hoffnung, dies würde die Kat…

Spencer

(151 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[English Version] Spencer, John (1630 Bocton, Kent, England, getauft 31.10.1630 – 27.5.1693 wahrscheinlich Cambridge), engl. Theologe und Hebraist, wirkte als Fellow (1655) und Master (1667) des Corpus Christi College in Cambridge und ab 1677 als Dean von Ely. Sein einflußreichstes Werk, »De legibus Hebraeorum« (1685), untersucht die rel. Umwelt der atl. Israeliten und legte so die Grundlage für die Entstehung der Vergleichenden Religionswiss. Als erster Gelehrter entdeckte er Ähnlichkeiten zw. den…

Oman

(175 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[English Version] Oman, John Wood (23.7.1860 Orkney, Schottland – 17.5.1939 Cambridge, England), presbyterianischer Theologe. O. studierte in Edinburgh und Heidelberg und war in Schottland und England im kirchl. Dienst, bevor er 1907 Prof. und 1922 Principal am Westminster College in Cambridge wurde. Durch die damalige Krise des Christentums beunruhigt, begann O. sich für F. Schleiermacher, dessen Reden »Über die Rel.« er übers. (1893), und dessen Modell der inneren Autorität der Wahrheit zu interes…

Seabury

(101 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[English Version] Seabury,  Samuel (30.11.1729 Groton, CT – 25.2.1796 New London, CT). Nach seiner Ordination in die Church of England (1753) wirkte S. als Missionar in mehreren nordamer. Gemeinden. Während der Amer. Revolution (Nordamerika: I., 2.) blieb er Loyalist. Er wurde 1784 als erster Bischof der nordamer. Protestant Episcopal Church nominiert und 1784 in Aberdeen von Bischöfen der Scottish Episcopal Church geweiht. In Folge wurde er Pfarrer an St. James', New London, Bischof von Connecticut und 1790 schließlich Bischof von Rhode Island. Grayson Carter Bibliography…

Watson

(103 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[English Version] Watson, Richard (22.2.1781 Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire – 8.1.1833 London), Wesleyscher Methodist (Methodismus/Methodisten: I.). W. war Mitglied einer kleinen Gruppe von Klerikern und Laien, die die Identität der Wesleyschen Methodisten nach J. Wesleys Tod und ihrer Abspaltung von der Church of England maßgeblich mitbestimmte. Er war mit einer Reihe einflußreicher kirchl. Positionen betraut und veröff. zahlreiche Werke zur Erklärung und Weiterführung der Wesleyschen Theol. Grayson Carter Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Theological Institutes, 6 …

Thompson, Francis

(157 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1859, Preston, Lancashire – Nov 13, 1907, London), English Roman Catholic poet. In 1885, having failed to become a priest or doctor, and having succumbed to opium addiction, he relocated from his native Lancashire to London. Here, while living in filth, despair and penury, he came to know Wilfred Meynell, critic and editor of the Catholic magazine Merry England. Meynell befriended Thompson and was the first to recognize his poetic genius, which arose from a combination of his destitution and Christian faith. Before his premature d…

Spencer, John

(171 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1630, Bocton, Kent, England, baptized Oct 31, 1630 – May 27, 1693, probably Cambridge, England), English theologian and Hebraist. He ¶ served as fellow (1655) and master (1667) of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge, before being appointed dean of Ely (1677). His most influential work, De Legibus Hebraeorum (1685), traced the religious antiquities of the ancient Hebrews and laid the foundation for the subsequent emergence of the study of comparative religion. He was the first scholar to observe the similarities between Hebre…

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] The SPG was established under royal charter by T. Bray in 1701 to supply the “want of learned and orthodox ministers” in the plantations, colonies, and “factories beyond the seas.” The rapidly expanding British Empire presented both challenges and opportunities for the Church of England. The SPG set out to “settle the State of Religion” for the colo­nists before undertaking “the conversion of the Natives.” During the 18th century the SPG’s efforts focused on the American colonies,…

Liddon, Henry Parry

(182 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 20, 1829, North Stoneham, Hampshire – Sep 9, 1890, Weston-super-Mare, Gloucestershire) was an Anglican cleric. Educated at Oxford, he was ordained in 1852. After a succession of church appointments, he became, in 1870, a canon of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, where his able preaching attracted sizable congregations. A leader of the catholic revival (Oxford Movement), Liddon opposed the advance of both its ritualist and liberal-Catholic wings; the publication of Lux Mundi (1889) proved particularly distressing as well as the growing use of criti…

Ramsey, Arthur Michael

(136 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1904, Cambridge, UK – Apr 23, 1988, Oxford, UK), archbishop of Canterbury, was a much beloved and admired priest, theologian, and bishop of broad, yet traditional, Anglo-Catholic leanings. After Cambridge Ramsey was ordained in the Church of England and served in both parish and university appointments. In 1952 Ramsey became bishop of Durham, in 1956 archbishop of York, and in 1961 archbishop of Canterbury, where he labored tirelessly in mission work and the wider Anglica…

Sancroft, William

(205 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1617, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England – Nov 24, 1693, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England), archbishop of Canterbury and Nonjuror. Fellow of Emmanuel College in Cambridge from 1642 to 1651, he fled to the Continent after being rejected from his Cambridge fellowship by the Puritans. After the Restoration in 1660, he gained rapid preferment in the Church, being elevated to archbishop in 1668. While in office, he labored in various ways to strengthen the spiritual and political …

Law, William

(253 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1686, King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire – Apr 9, 1761, King's Cliffe), Nonjuror and English theologian. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1711. In 1714, upon the accession of George I, Law refused the Oath of Allegiance, was deprived of his fellowship, and joined the Jacobites (Jacobitism). He later served as private tutor to the Gibbons family in Putney. In 1740, he retired to his birthplace, where he became domestic chaplain to a small ho…
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