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Agudat Ṣiyyon Society

(8 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
See Tunis Daniel Schroeter

Atlas Mountains (Morocco)

(2,840 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
There have been Jewish communities in various parts of the mostly Berber regions of the Atlas Mountains in the Islamic Maghreb since ancient times. The Atlas range includes mountain chains and massifs in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia that extend along the Saharan fault from the southwestern Moroccan Atlantic coast to the southeastern Tunisian Mediterranean coast, including the Rif and Tell Atlas, which border the Mediterranean. In Morocco, Jews were most widely distributed in the southern chains of the High At…

Ahavat Ṣiyyon Society (Safi)

(9 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Zionism Daniel Schroeter

Benoliel, Judah

(492 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Born in 1772, Judah Benoliel was a wealthy Jewish merchant from a Tetouani family who served as the Moroccan consul general in the British colony of Gibraltar in the 1820s and 1830s under the Alawid (ʿAlawī) sultans Mawlāy Sulaymān and Mawlāy ‘Abd al-Raḥmān. Morocco maintained only a few permanent consulates in foreign countries before the twentieth century, but Gibraltar, a key entrepôt for commerce in the western Mediterranean, was strategically a crucial center for Moroccan financial and political dealings wit…

Slouschz, Nahum

(842 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Nahum Slouschz(ca.1872-1966), Hebraicist and explorer, was the first to write in-depth studies on the history, ethnography and archeology of the Jewish communities of North Africa. He was born near Vilna, grew up in Odessa, and became actively involved in Zionism and the Hebrew renaissance movement on which he wrote extensively. He spent time in Palestine in the 1890s, returned to Russia, and then went to study classical and French literature in Geneva.  He continued his studies in Semitics and …

Foum Zguid

(8 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Tata Region Daniel Schroeter

Maghreb

(8 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Algeria;Morocco; Libya; Tunisia Daniel Schroeter

Tiznit

(6 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Sous Daniel Schroeter

La Voix des Communautés (Rabat)

(16 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Conseil des Communautés Israélites du Maroc (CCIM) Daniel Schroeter

Arazan

(6 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Sous Daniel Schroeter

Zarzis

(561 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Zarzis is a town on the coast of southeastern Tunisia, about 50 kilometers (32 miles) south of Jerba and close to the Libyan border. A Jewish community was established in Zarzis in 1883 after French settlers began developing olive oil production in the town and region during the French protectorate (1881–1956). Nearly the entire Jewish community was made up of Jerban Jews from Hara Kebira who, seeking opportunities in the colonial economy, formed a network of satellite communities together with other towns in the region (Ben Gardane, Medenine, Matmata). The large synagogue, modeled on…

Ifrane (of the Anti-Atlas; also Ifran, Oufrane)

(878 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Located in the Anti-Atlas Mountains in the  southwestern Sous region, the town of Ifrane (from Berb. ifri, cave), called Oufrane by Jews, was, according to Moroccan Jewish tradition, home to the oldest continuously existing Jewish community in Morocco. Legend recounted that its origin ultimately went back to escapees from Jerusalem after the destruction of the First Temple in 586 B.C.E.  Over the years their descendants moved across Egypt and North Africa in search of a home. They eventually settled in Wadi Oufrane in…

Aliya, Clandestine

(7 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Morocco Daniel Schroeter

École Normale Hebraïque (ENH), Casablanca

(318 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
The École Normale Hébraïque (ENH) was founded in Casablanca in 1946 by the Alliance Israélite Universelle to train teachers in modern Hebrew and Jewish Studies. It was part of an effort to modernize the Jewish and Hebrew curriculum in Morocco, as well as to replace the more traditionalist rabbi-teachers who taught Hebrew and Jewish Studies in the Alliance schools, and to serve as a testing ground for the organization’s post–World War II program of reform. Its founders were Jules Braunschvig, the vice-president of the Alliance, Isaac Rouche, a rabbi from Oran and supporter of the AIU, and Re…

Targhilil

(6 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Dra’a Daniel Schroeter

Amizmiz

(7 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Atlas Mountains Daniel Schroeter

Twansa

(9 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Grana (Livornese), Tunis, Tunisia Daniel Schroeter

Berber Jews

(861 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
From the early Islamic period until the mid-twentieth century,  Jews were scattered among the Muslim Berber-speaking populations of the Maghreb: in rural Morocco, especially in the Atlas Mountains and the south, Kabylia and Mzab in Algeria, Jerba in Tunisia, and the Jebel Nafusa in Libya. While contemporary evidence is lacking, it is likely that some Berbers converted to Judaism in late antiquity, before the expansion of Islam in the Maghreb. The idea that the Jews who lived in these regions were themselves part of the indigenous Berber population …

Agadir

(684 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
Agadir (Berb. Agadīr, fortified enclosure) is a seaport on the Atlantic coast of southwestern Morocco near the mouth of the Sous River. Founded as a fortified post by a Portuguese nobleman in 1505, and acquired by the Portuguese crown in 1513, Santa Cruz do Cabo de Guer was renamed Agadir when it was conquered by the Saʿdi dynasty in 1541. The town became Morocco’s principal southern seaport, and much of the country’s trade with Europe, especially Amsterdam, was conducted by Jews who settled there. The Dutch relied on Jewish merchants in Agadir for ostrich feathers, indigo, wax, gu…

Azizmiz

(7 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Atlas Mountains Daniel Schroeter
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