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Tarphe

(48 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τάρφη/ Tárphē). City in eastern Locris (Hom. Il. 2,533); according to  Str. 9,4,6  the original place name of Pharygae (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; s. v. Φαρύγαι; s. v. Θρόνιον). Location unknown. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. W. Kase et al., The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vol. 1, 1991, 88.

Oeneon

(207 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰνεών/ Oineṓn; also Οἰνόη/ Oinóe, regularly after the 5th cent. BC, or Οἰνόα/ Oinóa). Town in western Locris, east of Naupactus, near the modern Klima on the Paleochori hill (remains of city wall ring), with a harbour (modern Monastirakio). As the death of Hesiod (Hesiodus) was documented at the nearby sanctuary of Zeus Nemeios (Thuc. 3,96,1), O. can be identified with Oinoe (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 215-254; Tzetz. Vita Hesiodi 97; 101; 104; cf. Plut. Mor. 162 e-f). It is uncertain whether the ethnikon Oinaîos (Οἰναῖος) or Oinoaîos (Οἰνοαῖος) in inscriptions f…

Pleistus

(117 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλειστός/ Pleistós; literary form Πλεῖστος/ Pleîstos, Herodianus, De prosodia catholica 217). River, modern Xeropotami, and valley in western Phocis at the southern foot of Mount Parnassus, where Delphi was located. It flows into the Gulph of Corinth in the east of the plain of Itea. Material remains attest to settlement from Protohelladic II onwards; the greatest density of settlement is found in the Mycenaean Period. Cf. Paus. 10,8,8; 37,7; Str. 9,3,3; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,711. Crisa Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 21, …

Daulis, Daulia

(256 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δαυλίς , Δαυλία; Daulís, Daulía). City in eastern Phocis, c. 1 km south of modern Davleia. Its location on one of the foothills of the Parnassus made access to it naturally difficult and gave it strategic importance because both the narrow pass between the lower and upper Cephissus valley as well as the road from  Chaeronea to  Delphi could be controlled by it (Hell. Oxy. 13,5; Liv. 32,18,7). Etymologically, its name is derived from …

Tritea

(106 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τριτέα/ Tritéa; Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). Town in the east of western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρίτεια; SEG 25, 590), probably at modern Pendeoria near Galaxidi, with remains of a ring wall. A breed of hunting dog was named after T. (Hesych. s.v. Τριτῆς γενήεν). There are frequent mentions of inhabitants of T. in inscriptions at Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 51 f., 145-149, 211; vol. 2, 1952, passim  J. Bousquet, C. Vatin, La Convention Chaleion-T., in: BCH 92, 1968, 29-36  G. …

Alpenus

(81 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ἀλπηνός, Ἀλπηνοί; Alpēnós, Alpēnoí).   Kome (Hdt. 7,176) or   polis (Hdt. 7,216) on the coastal plain of eastern  Locris, which is towered over by the rock formation Melampygos; at the eastern exit of  Thermopylae, where the Anopaia path branches off (Hdt. 7,215 f.; 229; cf. Aeschin. Leg. 132 f.). Badly damaged during the earthquake in 426 BC (FGrH 85 Demetrius of Callatis fr. 6). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography Müller, 292 f. Pritchett 4, 1982, 159-162 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 202.

Patronis

(85 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πατρωνίς; Patrōnís). City in eastern Phocis (Plut. Sulla 15,4), identical with Trōnís (Τρωνίς, Paus. 10,4,10; CID 2,208,1; 9) with a heroon of Archegetes of Phocis. Remains of the wall at modern Hagia Marina. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J.M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Eastern Phokis, 1986, 50-53  Ph. Ntasios, Συμβολή στην τοπογραφίαν της Ἀρχαίας Φωκίδος, in: Phokikon Chronikon 4, 1992, 25f.  J. McInerney, The Phokikon and the Hero Archegetes, in: Hesperia 66, 1997, 193-207  Id, The Folds of Parnassos, 1999, 284-286.

Plygonium

(99 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλυγόνιον/ Plygónion). Western Locrian locality in the west of Delphi, unknown to ancient literature. In Delphic inscriptions before 190 BC - the year P. was incorporated into Delphi - the Πλυγόνεις/ Plygóneis are frequently mentioned. It should be distinguished from a Phlygonium  ([1] as opposed to [2]) in Phocis. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. P., RE Suppl. 14, 385-387 2 E. Kirsten, s.v. Phlygonion, RE 20, 306-308. G. Daux, Delphes au IIe et au Ier siècle, 1936, 230-234, esp. 234  L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'Ouest, vol. 1, 1952…

Larymna

(188 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Λάρυμνα; Lárymna). Harbour town in eastern Locris, on the Gulf of Euboea [1]. Remains of fortifications near modern L., from Mycenaean, archaic and classical times as well as the Roman Imperial period, testify to the continuity of settlement and reconstruction after the destruction by Sulla (86 BC: Plut. Sulla 26,4). On the ancient road between L. and Bazaraki, near the church of Agios Nikolaos, are the ruins of an early Christian basilica. The ancient settlement was located on the hill of Bazaraki c. 2.5 k…

Phocis

(1,395 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φωκίς/ Phōkís, Φωκεῖς/ Phōkeȋs). [German version] I. Geography A region in central Greece shaped by far-flung mountain ranges ( c. 1615 km2). Parnassus and Kirphis separate the eastern plain -- which is crossed by the Cephisus and borders east on the Callidromus up to Kopais - from the western plain which extends along the Gulf of Corinth up to the Bay of Cirrha, in the northeast borders on Doris, Thessaly and East Locris and in the west on Locris Ozolis. Phocis is one of the most seismically active regions in Gre…

Castalia

(253 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κασταλία; Kastalía, Lat. Castalia). Spring in  Delphi, dedicated to Apollo and the Muses, located at the exit of the gorge of the Phaedriades, its waters discharging into the river Pappadia; according to a -- geologically incorrect -- ancient assumption, the spring was fed by the Cephissus [1], which flows on the opposite slope of Mount Parnassus (Paus. 10,8,9f.; schol. Pind. Paean 6,5; POxy. 5, 841). In literature, C. is often used synonymously with  Delphi. The Castalian water, wh…

Pedieis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πεδιεῖς; Pedieîs). Town in the upper Cephisus valley in eastern Phocis whose location is pinpointed as being near Palio Thiva, 5 km north-northeast of modern Tithorea. However, this location has also been suggested for Neon [6]. P. lay on the right bank of the river where traces of the wall ring have been preserved. P. was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and laid waste by the Boeotians in 395 BC (Hell. Oxy. 18(13),5). In 360 BC it appeared in the list of those paying contributions towards the rebuilding of the temple of Delphi (CID II 5 Z. 55f.). Daverio Rocchi, G…

Cirphis

(137 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κίρφις; Kírphis). Mountain ridge south of Arachova in Boeotia, extending from the plain of Cirrha in the west to the Schiste in the east (Str. 9,3,3; FdD 3, 4, 280 c 24), where its highest peak rises (Xerovouni, 1503 m: cf. Pind. Hyporchemata d 5,4; b 3,11) and together with Mount Parnassus divides east and west Locris (Str. 9,3,1). It is uncertain if these references indicate the existence of an inhabited centre of the same name, whose location should be assumed near the modern v…

Hyampolis

(397 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ὑάμπολις; Hyámpolis). City of eastern  Phocis, modern Bogdanou on the plateau of Kalapodi. In antiquity, it was the main access from northern Greece into the Cephisus valley (Hdt. 8,28; Paus. 10,1,11) through Thermopylae and the plains of Opus. The acropolis of H. is located on a hill where the passage leading to the plains of Exarchus joins the valley ( Abae, distance c. 2,5 km), crossed by the road to Orchomenus. The name is derived etymologically from Hyántōn pólis (Paus. 10,35,5; Str. 9,2,3; 9,3,15); mentioned in the catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,51…

Scarphea

(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (Σκάρφεια/ Skárpheia). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Hom. Il. 2,532;  cf. Str. 9,4,4; Tab. Peut. 8,1; Geogr. Rav. 375,6), near modern Molo in a seismically active zone, seriously affected by tsunamis in 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6; Thuc. 2,32) and AD 551 (Procop. Goth. 4,25,16-23). Initially in rivalry with Thronium for dominance in the region (cf. the conflict over the number of Delphic hieromnḗmones and border conflicts: FdD vol. 3, 38,3; 42,7), in Late Anti…

Oeanthea

(237 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰανθέα/ Oìanthéa, Οἰάνθεια/ Oiántheia, Εὐάνθεια/ Euántheia, Latin Oianthe). Town in western Locris (Locri, Locris [1]) near the modern Vitrinitsa on the Gulf of Krisa like its neighbour  Chaleum (modern Galaxidi). Earliest evidence: a metrical funerary inscription (? 625-600 BC: IG IX,1, 867; SGDI 3188; Tod 1, 4) for a próxenos from Corcyra, and an agreement on judicial assistance with Chaleum (450 or later: IG IX 12, 717; Tod 1, 34; StV 2, 146 [2]). In the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC, Spartan troops under Eurylochus [2] marched through O. wi…

Abae

(254 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Ἄβαι, Ἀβαί; Ábai, Abaí). Situated in eastern  Phocis on a rocky outcrop at the edge of the plain which borders the pass of  Hyampolis (about 2.5 km distance) near the modern Exarchos, on the road from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. 10,35,1-5). Name derived from its Argive founder  Abas (Paus. loc. cit.). Seat of an oracle of Apollo (Hdt. 1,46; 8,27; 33; 133; Paus. loc. cit.; Str. 9,3,13; Diod. Sic. 16,58,3-6; Syll.3 552); fortress on the access to Phocis from  Locris Opuntia and  Boeotia (D…

Korykion Antron

(162 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κωρύκιον ἄντρον; Kōrýkion ántron). A grotto (Quaternary period) with two chambers, named after Apollo's daughter Corycia (Paus. 10,6,3), on the northern side of Parnassus (on a height of 1,360 m) above Delphi (today's Sarandavli). The cavern, which Str. 9,3,1 and Paus. 10,32,2 regarded as most beautiful, was used by the neighbouring population as a place of refuge (in the Persian invasion of 480 BC, Hdt. 8,36,2), but primarily, as a cult site from as early as the end of the 8th cen…

Phlygonium

(148 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Φλυγόνιον/ Phlygónion). Phocian town. Whether it was located in the north-west of the small plain of Tséresi is uncertain; the remains of the fortifications on the hill of Palaiokastron have been attributed to it. P. was among the cities destroyed in 346 BC at the instigation of Philippus [4] II (Paus. 10,3,2); the name P. also appears in the reports of the treasurers of Delphi after 324/3 (CID II 108 l. 10). In c. 140 BC (FdD III 2, 136), P. and Ambryssus, probably as part of a sympoliteía , together established the borders of their territory with that of Delphi. Daverio Rocchi…

Parapotamii

(231 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Παραποτάμιοι; Parapotámioi). Originally a peasant settlement on the eastern bank of the Cephis(s)us [1] in Phocis, c. 7 km north of Chaeronea near the modern Belesi, later fortified to protect the mountain pass between Parnassus and Hadylium which connected the upper Cephissus Valley with the Copais region (Hom. Il. 2,522; Paus. 10,33,7; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385). It is possible that Theopompus' (ibid.) proposed interpretation of the settlement as a colony ( katoikía) may have been linked to the settlement of the river valley by Minyans from Orchomen…
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