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Ḥasab wa-Nasab

(873 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a muzāwad̲j̲a [ q.v.] in the Arabic manner used of two aspects of the single idea of nobility. The second term denotes kinship, the relationship, particularly ancestral, i.e. the genealogy of an individual or a tribe, the record of which, in the time of the D̲j̲āhiliyya, was carefully maintained by the nassāba and which, under Islam, formed a branch of history [see nasab ]. The nasab , which was an element of honour, was based not only on consanguinity but also on maternal descent, although the relationship on the paternal side, which wa…


(75 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally, “level, smooth place”. There must have been several places in the Arabic lands named after this obvious topographical feature. Yāḳūṭ, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iii, 290-1, mentions a village in Bahrayn and a masd̲j̲id of that name in Kūfa (perhaps the mosque also known as the Ẓāfir one or that of ʿAbd al-Ḳays, cf. Hichem Djaït, Al-Kūfa , naissance de la ville islamique, Paris 1986, 298). (Ed.) Bibliography Given in the article.

Abu ’l-Ṭamaḥān al-Ḳaynī

(478 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ḥanzala b. al-s̲h̲arḳī , Muk̲h̲aḍram Arab poet, considered to be one of those endowed with an unduly long life (al-Sid̲j̲istānī, K. al-Muʿammarīn , ed. Goldziher, in Abh. zur arab . Philologie , ii, 62, asserts that he lived 200 years). During the D̲j̲ahiliyya he led the life of a brigand or ṣuʿlūk [ q.v.] and of a libertine (especially, at Mecca, in the company of al-Zubayr b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib), and he does not seem to have altered his ways in any measure after his conversion to Islam. He is said to have been killed at Ad̲j̲nādayn [ q.v.] in 13/634, but F. Bustānī ( DM, iv, 408-9) believes that ¶ he …


(239 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or menangkabau, the most numerous of the peoples of the island of Sumatra [ q.v.] in the Indonesian Republic (1980 population estimate, 6 million). They inhabit the Padang highlands of west-central Sumatra, but there are also appreciable numbers of Minangkabau emigrants, including to Negro Sembilan in the Malay peninsula [ q.v.]. Originally under Indonesian cultural and religious influence, as the centre of the Hindu-Malayan empire of Malayu, by the early 17th century much of their land had become Muslim through the influence of the Sultanate of Atjèh [ q.v.] at the northern tip of…

K̲h̲osrew Pas̲h̲a

(1,283 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Meḥmed (?-1271/1855), Ottoman Grand Vizier, educated in the Palace and raised to the post of head Čuk̲h̲adār on the accession of Ṣelīm III [ q.v.] in 1203/1789. He entered the service of Küčüḳ Ḥūseyn Pas̲h̲a, a protagonist of military and naval reform, who became Admiral ( Ḳapudan-i deryā ) in 1206/1792. In 1215/1801 K̲h̲osrew sailed with the fleet to Egypt, where he commanded a force of 6,000 and co-operated with the British in the recapture of Ras̲h̲īd and the defeat of French forces. In recognition of his services he was soon afterwards appointed wālī of Egypt. In Egypt he attempted to …


(178 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , S̲h̲āfīʿī faḳīh and specialist in the Ḳurʾānic readings, born at Malaṭya [ q.v.] and died at ʿAsḳalān in 377/987, whence the nisba of al-ʿAsḳalānī which he also bears. He was the author of a ḳaṣīda of 59 verses on the readings and the readers, in imitation of a poem by Mūsā b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-K̲h̲āḳānī, but he deserves the notice of Islamicists through his having left behind one of the oldest treatises on heresiography, the Kitāb al-Tanbīh wa ’l-radd ʿalā ahl al-ahwāʾ wa ’l-bidaʿ , which has been edited and publi…


(365 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a family of Berber “physicians”, whose ancestor, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad (d. 1070/1658-60) left the Sūs and settled at Fās; he must have used completely empirical methods, but nevertheless obtained significant results. Ibn S̲h̲akrūn [ q.v. in Suppl.] was the pupil of a certain Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Ādarrāḳ, who was probably the son of the above-mentioned person, but the best-known member of the family was this Aḥmad’s son, abu muḥammad ʿabd al-wahhāb b. aḥmad ( b. ca . 1077/1666, d. 28 Ṣafar 1159/22 March 1746), who was attached to Mawlāy Ismā…


(260 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. ʿUmar al-Umawī , Mālikī lawyer and above all, “reader” of the Ḳurʾān, born at Cordova in 371/ 981/2. After having made his pilgrimage to Mecca and spent some time in Cairo between 397/1006 and 399/1008, he returned to his birthplace but was soon forced to flee, first to Almeria and finally to Denia (Dāniya, whence his nisba ), where he settled down and died in 444/1053. Among more than 120 works which he wrote and enumerated himself in an urd̲j̲ūza , only about ten are known (see Brockelmann, I, 407, S I, 719); two of them deal …


(118 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a village of the premodern Indian province of Berār [ q.v.] situated on an affluent of the Pengangā river. Its main claim to fame is that it was the site of the battle in 1137/1724 when Niẓām al-Mulk Čīn Ḳilič K̲h̲ān [ q.v.] defeated the deputy governor of Ḥaydarābād Mubāriz K̲h̲ān and thereby established the virtual independence of the Niẓāms of Ḥaydarābād from the Mug̲h̲al empire. Niẓām al-Mulk changed the village’s name to Fatḥk̲h̲eldā. and this is now a small town in the Buldāna District in Maharās̲h̲tra State of the Indian Union (lat 20° 13′ N., long. 76° 29′). (Ed.) Bibliography Imperial…


(51 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p.), lit. “the one sitting on the [sheep’s] skin”, the title given to the baba or head of a dervish tekke in Persian and Ottoman Turkish Ṣūfī practice, e.g. amongst the Bektās̲h̲īs [see bektās̲h̲iyya ]. (Ed.) Bibliography J.K. Birge, The Bektas̲h̲i order of dervishes, London 1937, 57 n. 2, 269.

Ibn G̲h̲ānim

(222 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿIzz al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Salām b. Aḥmad b. G̲h̲ānim al-Maḳdisī al-Wāʿiẓ , author of works on mysticism or edification, of whose life little is known. He is said to have died in 678/1279. The best-known of his works is the Kas̲h̲f al-asrār , ʿan ( al-) ḥikam ( al-mūdaʿa fī ) al-ṭuyūr wa ’l-azhār , published and translated by Garcin de Tassy, Les oiseaux et les fleurs, Paris 1821 (tr. reprinted in 1876 in Allégories , récits poétiques , etc.; German tr. Peiper, Stimmen aus dem Morgenlande , Hirschberg 1850; lith. text, Cairo 1275, 1280; Būlāḳ ed. 1270, 1290; Cairo…


(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿi̊ti̊ḳnāme , also ʿi̊tāḳnāme , an Ottoman term for a certificate of manumission, given to a liberated slave [see ʿabd ]. The document normally gives the name and physical description, often also the religion and ethnie origin of the slave, together with the date and circumstances of his manumission, and is dated, signed, witnessed, and registered. The issue of such certificates goes back to early Islamic times (for examples see A. Grohmann, Arabic papyri in the Egyptian library, i, Cairo 1934, 61-4; idem, Arabische Papyri aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin , in Isl

Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAynī

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Russian form Sadriddin Ayni , one of the leading figures in the 20th century cultural life of Central Asia and in Tad̲j̲ik literature (1878-1954). He began as a representative of the reform movement amongst the Muslims of Imperial Russia, that of the Ḏj̲adīdīds [see d̲j̲adīd ]. A formal education at the traditional madrasa s of Buk̲h̲ārā left him intellectually unsatisfied. In the early part of his career he was a talented poet in both Tad̲j̲ik and Uzbek, but after 1905 he became increasingly involved in the social and educa…


(84 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a region in western Assam [ q.v.], the most north-easterly limit of penetration by Muslim armies in India. Conquest was not followed by any great settlement of Muslims in the region, which was in fact held only for limited periods. The few Muslims in the district today are mostly traders in the towns. For the history of the district as it affects Islam, see assam. In the Muslim geographers ( Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , Marwazī) it is often referred to as Ḳʾmrwn. (Ed.)

Ibn Ẓāfir

(307 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abī Manṣūr Ẓāfir b. al-Ḥusayn al-Azdī , Egyptian chancery secretary and man of letters, born in Cairo in 567/1171. He was the pupil of his father, who was a teacher at the Mālikī madrasa al-Ḳumḥiyya, and eventually succeeded him. He was next employed in the chancery of al-ʿAzīz (589-95/1193-8), then in that of al-ʿĀdil (596-615/1200-18), and finally in that of the latter’s son, al-As̲h̲raf (d. 635/1237), at Damascus. In 612/1215, he gave up his office a…


(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. d̲j̲usūr (Ar., cf. Fränkel, Aram. Fremdwörter im Arab historians asArabischen , 285), “bridge”, is more particularly, though by no means exclusively, a bridge of boats in opposition to ḳanṭara [ q.v.], an arched bridge of stone. An incident in the history of the conquest of Babylonia has become celebrated among the Arab historians as yawm al-d̲j̲isr “the day of [the fight at] the bridge”: in 13/634 Abū ʿUbayd al-T̲h̲aḳafī was defeated and slain in battle against the Persians at a bridge across the Euphrates near Ḥīra; cf. Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten ,…

Ḍirār b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb

(127 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Mirdās al-Fihrī , a poet of Mecca. Chief of the clan of Muḥārib b. Fihr in the Fid̲j̲ār [ q.v.], he fought against the Muslims at Uḥud and at the battle of the Trench, and wrote invectives against the Prophet. He was however converted after the capture of Mecca, but it is not known if he perished in the battle of Yamāma (12/633) or whether he survived and went to settle in Syria. (Ed.) Bibliography Sīra, ed. Saḳḳā, etc., Cairo 1375/1955, i, 414-5, 450, ii, 145-6, 254-5 Ṭabarī, index Muḥ. b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar, 170, 176, 434 Buḥturī, Ḥamāsa, index Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt, ed. S̲h̲ākir, 209-12 Ag̲h̲ānī, i…


(51 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the inhaling of water through the nostrils at the time of the wuḍūʾ and g̲h̲usl . This practice is recommended by the various rites (obligatory according to Ibn Ḥanbal). In practice this is not really important since the Believer always performs it during his ablutions. (Ed.) Bibliography See istind̲j̲āʾ.

Ḳuṭb al-Dīn al-Iznīḳī

(82 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Muḥammad al-Rūmī , early Ottoman Ḥanafī scholar and father of Ḳuṭb al-Dīn-zāde Muḥammad [ q.v.]. He was born at Iznīḳ [ q.v.] and died there on 8 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 821/7 December 1418. Popular story puts him in contact with the conqueror Tīmūr when the latter occupied Anatolia, and he was the author of commentaries on the work of the great Spanish mystic Ibn al-Arabī [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ṭās̲h̲köprüzāde, al-S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ al-nuʿmāniyya, Beirut 1395/1975, 24, German tr. O. Rescher, Constantinople-Galata 1927, 18-19.

K̲h̲alīfa b. Abi ’l-Maḥāsin

(178 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-ḥalabī , Arab physician who came originally from Aleppo, and was possibly related to the family of Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa [ q.v.]. The biographical details concerning him are fairly sparse, but it is known that he wrote, probably between 654 and 674/1256-75, a work on ophthalmology called al-Kāfī fi ’l-kuḥl (or fi ’l-ṭibb ). In this he gives a concise sketch of the history of ophthalmology among the Arabs and deals with the anatomy, physiology and hygiene of the eyes, citing the medicaments used for treating eye disorders, and d…
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