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(117 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of two districts ( ṭassūd̲j̲ ) of ʿIrāḳ, Upper and Lower Fallūd̲j̲a, which occupied the angle formed by the two arms of the lower Euphrates which flow finally into the Baṭīḥa [ q.v.], the Euphrates proper to the west (this arm is given various names by the geographers and is now called S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Hindiyya) and the nahr Sūrā (now S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥilla) to the east. (Ed.) Bibliography Suhrāb, K. ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-aḳālīm al-sabʿa, ed. H. von Mžik, Leipzig 1930, 124-5 Ṭabarī, index Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, 245, 254, 265, 457 Bakrī, index Yāḳūt, s.v. Yaʿḳūbī-Wiet, 140 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, v, 337 A. Musil, T…

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Battī

(333 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, aḥmad b. ʿalī , poet and littérateur, originally from al-Batt in ʿIrāḳ (Yāḳūt, i, 488), who was a member of the staff of al-Ḳādir’s chancery (reigned 381-422/992-1031). When the future caliph had in 381/991 to flee from al-Ṭāʾiʿ, al-Battī had already been in his service, since it was with him that al-Ḳādir sought refuge. Hence as soon as he succeeded to the caliphate, he appointed al-Battī to his dīwān , where he was in charge of the postal service and of intelligence. A Muʿtazilī in theology and a Ḥanafī in fiḳh , he had previously specialised in study of the Ḳurʾān and ḥadīt̲h̲

Ahl al-Naẓar

(79 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “those who apply reasoning”. This term originally denotes the Muʿtazila [ q.v.], and it is probable that they coined it themselves. It occurs in Ibn Ḳutayba, Taʾwīl Muk̲h̲talif al-Ḥadīt̲h̲ , passim; al-Masʿudī speaks of ahl al-baḥt̲h̲ wal-naẓar ; synonyms are ahl al-kalām (in al-S̲h̲āfiʿī) and al-mutakallimūn (in al-As̲h̲ʿarī). Later, ahl (or aşḥāb ) al-naẓar came to denote the careful scholars who held a sound, well-reasoned opinion on any particular question. See also naẓar . (Ed.)

al-Malik al-Ṣāliḥ Ismāʿīl

(155 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Badr al-Dīn ¶ Luʾluʾ , Rukn al-Dīn, ephemeral ruler in Mawṣil [ q.v.] after his father. Luʾluʾ [ q.v.] had submitted to the Mongols, and Ismāʿīl, his eldest son, had journeyed to the Great Ḵh̲ān’s ordo at Ḳaraḳorum in order to give his father’s homage. When Luʾluʾ died in 657/1258, Ismāʿīl succeeded him, but now switched sides and opposed the Mongols. He joined forces with the Mamlūk Baybars [ q.v.], but was killed, together with his young son, when the Mongols captured and sacked Mawṣil, so that the brief line of the Luʾluʾid Atabegs came to an end. (Ed.) Bibliography M. van Berchem, Monuments…

Ḳardā and Bāzabdā

(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ancient districts of Upper Mesopotamia (al-D̲j̲azīra), often mentioned together. The first place derives its name from Bēth Ḳardū, the land of the Carduci, which became Bāḳardā; according to Yāḳūt, s.v., this form is found “in the books”, but the local people say Ḳardā. The district comprised ca. 200 villages, the most notable being al-D̲j̲ūdī and T̲h̲amānīn, and the district of Faysabūr; it produced mainly corn and barley. The original chef-lieu , Ḳardā, lost its importance and was replaced by Bāsūrīn. Bāzabdā, for its part, is the name of a district…

Ibn Hindū

(216 words)

Author(s): Ed..
, Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-Kātib , secretary of the chancery, man of letters, poet and physician, a native of Rayy but educated at Nis̲h̲āpūr, where he was introduced to Greek science. He belonged at first to the dīwān of ʿAḍud al-Dawla, for whom he wrote a number of letters; he appears at Arrad̲j̲ān in 354/965 during the visit of al-Mutanabbi, and he seems to have remained in the service of the Buwayhids until his death, probably in 410/1019 rather than 420/1029. In addition to a Dīwān , which is in part preserved in later anthologies, he was the …


(175 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, after Borneo [ q.v.] the second largest island of the Malay Archipelago and the westernmost island (area 473,606 km2/182,859 sq. miles). In pre-Islamic times, the kingdoms in Sumatra were strongly Hinduised in culture and religion (Buddhism and Śivaist Brahmanism). Islam had appeared in Sumatra by the end of the 14th century, since Marco Polo in 1292 mentions the northern Sumatran ports of Perlak (as Ferlec), Samudra (from which the name Sumatra probably derives; Marco calls the island “Java the Lesser”) and Lambri…

Bā Ḥmād

(363 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Moroccan grand vizier whose real name was Aḥmad b. Mūsā b. Aḥmad al-Buk̲h̲ārī. His grandfather was a black slave belonging to the sultan Mawlāy Sulaymān (1206-38/1792-1823), whose ḥād̲j̲ib he had become [see Ḥād̲j̲ib in Suppl.]. His father likewise became Ḥād̲j̲ib to Sayyidī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (1276-90/1859-73), and then became grand vizier during the reign of Mawlāy al-Ḥasan (1290-1311/1873-94); he enjoyed a miserable reputation, but his immense fortune allowed him to connect his name with the Bāhiya palace in Marrākus̲h̲, …

ʿAlī Bey b. ʿUt̲h̲mān al-ʿAbbāsī

(87 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pseudonym of the Spanish traveller Domingo Badia y Leblich (Leyblich), b. 1766, d. 1818 in Syria, author of Voyages d’Ali-Bey el Abbassi en Afrique et en Asie pendant les années 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806 et 1807, 3 vols, and Atlas, Paris 1814; Travels of Ali Bey . . . between the years 1803 and 1807, 2 vols., London 1816. (Ed.) Bibliography P. Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX e siècle, s.v. Badia y Leblich U. J. Seetzen, Reisen, iii, 373 f.

al-D̲j̲awād al-Iṣfahānī

(302 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (he also had the honorific name of D̲j̲āmal al-Dīn ), vizier of the Zangids; he had been carefully educated by his father, and at a very early age was given an official appointment in the dīwān al-ʿarḍ of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultan Maḥmūd. Subsequently he became one of the most intimate friends of Zangī, who made him governor of Naṣībīn and al-Raḳḳa and entrusted him with general supervision of the whole empire. After Zangī’s assassination he very nearly shared his master’s ¶ fate, but succeeded in leading the troops to Mosul. Zangī’s son, Sayf al-Dīn…

Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲

(387 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥamdūn b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sulamī al-Mirdāsī al-Fāsī (1174-1232/1760-1817), “one of the most outstanding scholars of the reign of Mawlay Sulaymān” (1206-38/1792-1823), according to E. Lévi-Provençal, Les historiens des Chorfa , Paris 1922, 342, n. 5). As the faḳīḥ appointed to the Moroccan sultan, he filled the office of muḥtasib of Fās, then of ḳāʾid of the G̲h̲arb, before devoting a great part of his activites to literature. He is the author of several commentaries and glosses, of epistles of a religious character and of an account of the pilg…


(61 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p.), literally “the person who draws the curtain”, a term used among the dynasties of the eastern Islamic world from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period onwards as the equivalent of Arabic ḥād̲j̲ib , i.e. for the court official, the chamberlain, who controlled access to the ruler, the latter being normally veiled from public gaze.. For this function, see Ḥād̲j̲ib . (Ed.)


(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Kambō , S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ D̲j̲amālī , Suhrawardī Ṣūfī saint of early 10th/16th century Muslim India, who died in 941/1534-5 during the reign of the Mug̲h̲al ruler Humāyūn [ q.v.] and was buried at Mihrawlī. His son Gadāʾī [see gadāʾī kambō, in Suppl.], whom D̲j̲amālī had in his lifetime made his k̲h̲alīfa or spiritual successor within the Suhrawardī order, achieved equal religious influence at the courts of Humāyūn and then Akbar. (Ed.) Bibliography See that to gadāʾī kambō.

al-Ḥaddād, al-Ṭāhir

(589 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nationalist and reformist Tunisian writer, considered as the pioneer of the movement for feminine liberation in his country. Born in Tunis ca. 1899 into a family of modest status originally from the Ḥāma of Gabès, he studied at the Zaytūna [ q.v.] from 1911 to 1920 and gained the taṭwīʿ (corresponding to the diploma for completing secondary education). He then took part in the trade union movement and was put in charge of propaganda in an organisation founded in 1924, the D̲j̲āmiʿat ʿumūm al-ʿamala al-tūnisiyya , ¶ whose chief promoters were hunted down and banished in 1925. His…


(44 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a nisba borne by members of the famed Egyptian family of s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s of the Bakriyya Ṣūfī order [see al-bakrī b. abi ’l-surbūr and bakriyya ]; it related to their claimed descent from the first caliph Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīḳ [ q.v.]. (Ed.)


(273 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “he who seeks”, in Ṣūfī mystical parlance, the novice or postulant or seeker after spiritual enlightenment by means of traversing ( sulūk ) the Ṣūfī path in obedience to a spiritual director ( murs̲h̲id , pīr , s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ [ q.vv.]). The equivalent Persian term is s̲h̲āgird , literally “pupil, apprentice”. The stages of the novice’s spiritual initiation are detailed in numerous Ṣūfī manuals and works touching on Ṣūfism, such as al-G̲h̲azālī’s Iḥyāʾ , and the term murīd figures in numerous titles of such works. One of the earliest manuals was the Ādāb al-murīdīn


(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the common Turkish word for “water”, originally suv (which explains the form suy before vowel-initial possessive suffixes, e.g. suyu “his water”), the form still found in South-West Turkmen, in Ottoman orthography ṣū . The word is found frequently in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions, often in the phrase yer suv = “territory”, i.e. an area containing both land and water in the form of rivers, lakes, etc. (see Sir Gerald Clauson, An etymological dictionary of prethirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 783-4). In Central Asia and in the Turkicised northern tier of the Midd…


(143 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in Algeria, founded in 296/908 at 8 km/5 miles to the south-west of Ward̲j̲ilān (Ouargla) in the territory of the confederation of ḳṣūr of the Isedrāten, by the last Rustamid Imām, after the destruction of the principality of Tāhart [ q.v.] by the Fāṭimids. Its fame is linked with the history of the Ibāḍī communities of the Mag̲h̲rib. An Ibādī scholar, Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲ilānī (d. 570/1174-5) compiled there the musnad of al-Rabīʿ b. Ḥabīb, based essentially on the tradition of Abū ʿUbayda (ed. Masḳaṭ 1325/1908 under the title of al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ


(243 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.) “hot spring”, and a bath served by a hot spring (whereas in principle, in Ottoman usage, a ḥammām [ q.v.] is a bath whose water is artificially heated), a characteristically Western Turkish word, the diminutive(?) of i̊li̊ “hot” ( < i̊li̊g , cited by Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Ar. text, i, 31 = tr. B. Atalay, i, 31, in contrast to “Turkish” yi̊li̊g , as an example of the Og̲h̲uz tendency to drop initial y-). According to ʿĀṣim (T. translation of al-Fīrūzābād̲j̲’s Muḥīṭ , s.v. al-ḥimma , = ed. of 1268-72, iii, 435; cited in TTS, i, 349), a thermal and curative spring is called “ i̊li̊d̲j̲a


(122 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventionally Tindouf , a small town in the southwestern part of modern Algeria, in the governorate ( wilāya ) of Saoura and at the southwestern end of the Hamada of the Dra near where the modern borders of Algeria, Morocco, the former Spanish Sahara and Mauritania meet (lat. 27° 42’ N., long. 80° 10’ W.). It is now on the road connecting western Algeria with Mauritania, with an airstrip, and has recently acquired economic and political importance because of the proximity of iron ore depos…
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