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Ibn ʿĀmir

(217 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿUmar ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir al-Yaḥṣubī , “reader” of the Ḳurʾān whose ḳirāʾa [ q.v.] is counted among the seven canonical “readings”. Of south Arabian origin, he belonged to the first class of the Tābiʿūn [ q.v.], his guarantors being ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, Abu ’l-Dardāʾ [ q.v.] and other less famous Companions. He settled in Damascus, where he was appointed ḳāḍī , by al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik and chief of police by Yazīd b. al-Walīd and Ibrāhīm b. al-Walīd; his “reading” was adopted by the inhabitants of Damascus. He died in 118/736…

Sonḳor

(112 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sunḳur (t.), one of the many words in Turkish denoting birds of prey. In the modern Turkic languages, and probably always, it means the gerfalcon, falco gyrfalco (Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dict. of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 838a). Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī says that it was a raptor smaller than the ṭog̲h̲ri̊l ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, iii, 381). The term became frequently used as a personal name in mediaeval Islamic times, both alone and in such combinations as Aḳ/Ḳara Sonḳor “White/Black Gerfalcon”, cf. J. Sauvaget, Noms et surnoms de Mamelouk

Ahl al-Ḥall wa’l-ʿAḳd

(213 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(this, though illogical, is the normal order of the words), “those who are qualified to unbind and to bind”, the representatives of the community of the Muslims who act on their behalf in appointing and deposing a caliph or ¶ another ruler [see bayʿa]. They must be Muslims, male, of age, free, ʿadl [ q.v.], and capable of judging who is best qualified to hold the office. No fixed number of “electors” is required; according to the prevailing opinion, even the appointment made by one “elector” in the presence of two qualified witnesses is valid. This…

Ibn ʿAmr al-Ribāṭī

(218 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAmr al-Anṣārī , Moroccan poet and faḳīh , of Andalusian origin, who was born at Rabat, fulfilled the office of ḳāḍī for some time, and from 1224/1809 taught at Marrākus̲h̲. Whilst making the Pilgrimage, he stopped at Tunis, and received there some id̲j̲āza s; he died in the Ḥid̲j̲āz on 10 Rabīʿ I 1243/1 October 1827. Ibn ʿAmr was neither a great faḳīh nor a great poet. His works, which include in particular a dīwān , a fahrasa and a riḥla , have not been preserved in toto, and his fame rests essentially on an imita-tion of the S̲h̲amaḳmaḳiyya of Ibn al-Wannān [ q…

Rayda

(311 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Rīda, Rēda) is the name of a number of places in ʿAsīr, in the Yemen and in Ḥaḍramawt. The word rayd (pl. aryād/ruyūd ) means a ledge of a mountain, resembling a wall, or a resting upon ledges of mountains (Lane, Lexicon , s.v.). At least in Ḥaḍramawt, it is the term for the centre of the territory of a Bedouin tribe, which is generally a depression in the rocky plateau (D. van der Meulen and H. von Wissmann, Hadramaut , some of its mysteries unveiled, Leiden 1932, 22, n. 1). There are several places of this name ( Rēda) in Hadramawt: Raydat al-Ṣayʿar, Raydat Arḍayn, Raydat al-ʿIbād, Raydat …

Iskandar Ag̲h̲a

(309 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Yaʿḳūb b. Abkār , an Armenian of Beirut, better known by the name abkaryus (d. 1885). Becoming devoted to the study of Arabic literature, he endeavoured to provide his readers with anthologies based upon works still unpublished and thereby rendered great service to orientalism in the 19th century. His best known work is the Nihāyat al-arab fī ak̲h̲bār al-ʿArab (Marseilies 1852; revised ed. under the title Tazyīn Nihāyat al-arab , Beirut 1867). In Beirut he also edited (1864, 1881) the Dīwān of ʿAntara ( Munyat al-nafs fī as̲h̲ʿār ʿAntar ʿAbs ), and published in the same town Rawḍat al-ada…

Aḥmed Ḥilmī

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, known as S̲h̲ehbenderzāde, a Turkish journalist who first achieved prominence after the revolution of 1908, when he returned to ¶ Istanbul from exile in Fezzan, and started a periodical called Ittiḥād-i Islām . He also contributed to Iḳdām , Taṣwīr-i Efkār , and, later, the weekly Ḥikmet [see d̲j̲arīda , iii], and wrote a considerable number of books, some of which were published. These include a history of Islam and books on the Sanūsī order and on Ibrahim Güls̲h̲anī [ qq.v.]. He died in 1913. (Ed.) Bibliography Babinger, 397 ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ müʾellifleri, ii, 156-7.

Čāwdors

(95 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(or Ḏj̲āvuldur ), a Turcoman tribe, the first settlers of which came to Ḵh̲wārizm in the 16th and 17th centuries, the bulk following in the 18th century. After the wars against the Ḵh̲ānate of Ḵh̲īwa, a proportion of them was driven off to the Mangi̊s̲h̲laḳ peninsula, whence some clans emigrated to the steppes of Stavropol’. Part of the tribe submitted to Ḵh̲īwa and settled permanently in Ḵh̲wārizm. It is now a sedentary tribe with a population of ¶ some 25,000, in the Nuk̲h̲us area (Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Ḳara-Ḳalpaḳistān). [See: Türkmen ]. (Ed.)

Çakmak

(401 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mustafa Fevzi , also called Kavak̲lı, marshal in the Turkish army. Born in Istanbul in 1876, he was the son of an artillery colonel. He entered the war academy (Harbiye, [ q.v.]) where he became a lieutenant in 1895, joined the staff course, and was gazetted as a staff captain in 1898. After spending some time on the general staff, he was posted to Rumelia where he became successively a Colonel, divisional commander, and Army Corps Chief of Staff. He served on the staff of the army of the Vardar during the Balkan War, and du…

al-Zabāniyya

(107 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), a word found in Ḳurʾān, XCVI, 18, usually interpreted by the commentators as the guardians of Hell or else the angels who carry off the souls at death [see malāʾika. 1]. A. Jeffery, The foreign vocabulary of the Qurʾān , Baroda 1938, 148, thought that an origin from Syriac zabūrā , the ductores who, says Ephraim Syrus, lead the departed souls for judgment was likely; but W. Eilers, Iranisches Lehngut im arabischen , in Indo-Iranian Jnal , v (1962), 220, favoured an Iranian etymology, from MP zen ( dān ) bān “warder, keeper of a prison”, NP zindānbān . (Ed.) Bibliography Given in the article.

Ḥayātī-Zāde

(230 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ottoman family of physicians and ʿulamāʾ the prominent members of which are: (1) Muṣṭafā Feyḍī, said to have been a convert from Judaism (born Mos̲h̲e ben Raphael Abravanel) and to have acted as interpreter during the interrogation of the ‘Messiah’ S̲h̲abbětay Ṣebī ([ q.v.], see also dönme ), became reʾīs al-aṭibbāʾ [see ḥekīm-bas̲h̲i̊ ] in 1080/1669-70 and died in 1103/1691-2. He is the author of a ‘k̲h̲amsa’ entitled al-Rasāʾil al-mus̲h̲fiyya fi ’l-amrāḍ al-mus̲h̲kila , on the nature, symptoms and treatment of various diseases, based on the L…

Karūk̲h̲

(152 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a town in the region of Bādg̲h̲īs [q.v.] of modern northwestern Afg̲h̲ānistān and, according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (4th/10th century), the biggest town of the region after the capital Harāt. It had a Friday mosque and was famed for its fruits, especially apricots and raisins. Its particular claim to fame in mediaeval times was as an enduring centre of the K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ on the eastern Iranian fringes. In 259/873 the Ṣaffārid amīr Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ had to cope with a serious rebellion of the eastern K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ centred on K…

ʿĀriyya

(259 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) or ʿāriya , also iʿāra , the loan of non-fungible objects ( prêt à usage, commodatum ). It is distinguished as a separate contract from the ḳarḍ or loan of money or other fungible objects ( prêt de consommation, mutuum ). It is defined as putting some one temporarily and gratuitously in possession of the use of a thing, the substance of which is not consumed by its use. The intended use must be lawful. It is a charitable contract and therefore "recommended" ( mandūb ), and the beneficiary or borrower enjoys the privileged position of a trustee ( amīn ); he is not, in …

Maḥalle

(494 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term commonly used in Ottoman administrative parlance for a ward or quarter of a town. As listed in the Ottoman registers [see daftar-i k̲h̲āḳānī ], the maḥalle s are of various kinds. Characteristically, the Ottoman maḥalle consisted of a religious community grouped around its mosque (or church or synagogue) and headed by its religious chief. In addition to its place of worship, the maḥalle normally had its own market, school and water fountain, these normally being supported by pious endowments. In many provincial towns, the maḥalle also had its own outer wall with a limited…

Ibn ʿUnayn

(449 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Maḥāsin S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Muḥ. b. Naṣr b. ʿAlī b. Muḥ. b. G̲h̲ālib al-Anṣārī , satirical poet born at Damascus on 9 S̲h̲aʿbān 549/19 October 1154, and died there on 20 Rabīʿ I 630/4 January 1233. After receiving a traditional education from the main teachers of Damascus and spending a period in ʿIrāḳ, Ibn ʿUnayn began early to use his lively satire against many different kinds of people; he did not spare even Salāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin), who had just made himself master of the town (570…

Sulaymān b. Yaḥyā

(418 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nicknamed Ibn Abi ’l-Zawāʾid, minor Medinan poet of the period straddling the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid dynasties. He was of Arab origin from the tribe of the Saʿd b. Bakr (Hawāzin) and seems to have owed his nickname to a malformation of the legs (fleshy excrescences showing on the legs); in al-Ag̲h̲ānī (xv, 34), the poet is nicknamed d̲h̲u ’l-zawāʾid (“he who has fleshy excrescences”). The ancient sources, with one exception only, are silent regarding him; K. al-Waraḳa and the Ṭabaḳāt of Ibn al-Muʿtazz, while mentioning numerous Bag̲h̲dādī artisans of t…

Ḍamān

(481 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), in Islamic law, the civil liability in the widest meaning of the term, whether it arises from the non-performance of a contract or from tort or negligence ( taʿaddī , literally “transgression”). Prominent particular cases are the liability for the loss of an object sold before the buyer has taken possession ( ḍamān al-mabīʿ ), for eviction ( ḍamān al-darak ), for the loss of a pledge in the possession of the pledgee ( ḍamān al-rahn), for the loss of an object that has been taken by usurpation ( ḍamān al-g̲h̲aṣb ), and for loss or damage caused by artisans ( ḍamān al-ad̲j̲īr , . al-ṣunnāʿ

Müfettis̲h̲

(134 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the Ottoman Turkish form of Ar. mufattis̲h̲ , lit. “one who searches out, enquires into something”. In the Ottoman legal system of the 12th/18th century, below the Great Mollās [see mollā ] there was a layer of five judges called müfettis̲h̲ , whose duties were to oversee and enquire into the conducting of the Imperial ewkāf or pious foundations [see waḳf ], three of them being resident in Istanbul and one each in Edirne and Bursa (see Gibb and Bowen, ii, 92). In the 19th century, and with the coming of the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] reforms, müfettis̲h̲ was the designation for the overseers an…

al-Musabbiḥāt

(70 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “those which give praise”, the name given to the group of Ḳurʾānic sūras from the middle Medinan peirod, LVII, LIX, LXI, LXII, LXIV, so-called because they begin with the phrase sabbaḥa or yusabbiḥu li ’llāh . The designation seems to be old; cf. Muslim, Zakāt , trad. 119. See further, Nöldeke-Schwally, G des Q, i, 186, 245, ii, 45; and ḳurʾān , 7, towards the end. (Ed.)

al-Marwazī

(92 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Sukkarī , Arabic poet of Marw, floruit later 4th/10th or early 5th/11th century. Al-T̲h̲aʿālibī quotes specimens of his light-hearted and witty poetry, and also of an interesting muzdawad̲j̲a in which he turned Persian proverbs into Arabic rad̲j̲az couplets, a conceit said to be one of his favourite activities. (Ed.) Bibliography T̲h̲aʿālibī, Yatīma, Damascus 1304/1886-7, iv, 22-5, Cairo 1375-7/1956-8, iv, 87-90 C. Barbier de Meynard, Tableau littéraire du Khorassan et de la Transoxiane au IV e siècle de l’hégire, in JA, Ser. 5, i (1853), 205-7.
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