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al-Mug̲h̲ammas

(155 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a valley near to Mecca, a short distance from the road to al-Ṭāʾif, cited, especially in old poetry, because the tomb of Abū Rig̲h̲āl [ q.v.] was traditionally located there. The correct reading of the toponym is not however certain, with variation between al-Mag̲h̲ammas, al-Mug̲h̲ammis and al-Mug̲h̲ammas. The latter form seems to be the most plausible, for it denotes a spot covered with scrub and bushes in which it is possible to hide, and, according to a tradition, it was there that the Prophet would go asid…

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

(211 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a celebrated Persian collection of biographies of Muslim Indian commanders from the reign of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605) till the time of its author, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ S̲h̲āh-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Awrangābādī (1111-71/1700-58). Born at Lahore, he soon settled in the Deccan in the service of the first Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Ḏj̲āh. and filled offices in Berār [ q.v.] and then as Dīwān or chief minister of the Deccan. His policy in the latter post aimed at checking the growing influences in that state …

Muk̲h̲ārad̲j̲a

(258 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), together with its synonyms muḳāraʿa , munāhada and musāhama , conveys the idea of the division of various objects done in various ways amongst two or more persons; but the word muk̲h̲ārad̲j̲a by itself and the other terms followed by the expression bi ’l-aṣābiʿ “with the fingers” all denote the game of mora, morra, or mication (Latin micatio , Ital. mora ). This game is played all around the shores of the Mediterranean, and also in Arabia and ʿIrāḳ, and consists of two players, facing each other, and, at a signal given by one of…

Yazīd b. Zurayʿ

(93 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Abū Muʿāwiya al-Baṣrī, traditionist of Baṣra, b. 101/720 and d. in Baṣra S̲h̲awwāl 182/Nov.-Dec. 798. His father had been governor of al-Ubulla [ q.v.], presumably under the later Umayyads. He is described as the outstanding muḥaddit̲h̲ of Baṣra in his time, a t̲h̲iḳa and ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲a , and was the teacher of the historian and biographer K̲h̲alīfa b. K̲h̲ayyāṭ [see ibn k̲h̲ayyāṭ ]. Ibn Saʿd says that Yazīd was a supporter of the ʿUt̲h̲māniyya [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, vii/2, 44 Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb, xi, 325-8 Ziriklī, Aʿlām 2, ix, 235.

Arbūna

(349 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name by which the Arab historians designated the town of Narbonne. Reached by the early Muslim expeditions, it was taken in 96/715 under ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr, was probably then lost or abandoned, and was retaken in 100/719 by al-Samḥ b. Mālik al-Ḵh̲awlānī. In 116/734, two years after the battle of Poitiers [see balāṭ al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ], the Duke of Provence concluded a treaty with the governor of Narbonne, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, whereby the latter was allowed to occupy a certain number of places in the valley of the Rhône, in order to pr…

Ḥays

(329 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.; noun of unity, ḥaysa ), an Arab dish made from dates (of the variety called barnī ) crushed and then kneaded with some preserved butter; to this is added skimmed, dried and crumbly camels’ milk cheese, or some flour, or even some crumbled bread. The invention of this mixture of ingredients is attributed traditionnally (see al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Buk̲h̲alaʾ , ed. Ḥād̲j̲irī, 211; tr. in Arabica , ii/3 [1955], 336) to a prominent member of Mak̲h̲zūm called Suwayd al-Haramī (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, D̲j̲amhara , Tab. 22), who is also said to have been the first to s…

al-Ṣāliḥiyya

(194 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of various places in the Middle East. These include: 1. A settlement of Diyār Muḍar in al-Ḏj̲azīra, placed by Yāḳūt in the district of al-Ruhā [ q.v.] or Edessa and said to have been laid out by the ʿAbbāsid governor of Syria ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ṣāliḥ. He also quotes a (now lost) history of Mawṣil by the Ḵh̲ālidiyyāni [ q.v.] that the caliph al-Mahdī began the work of fortification there. Bibliography Yāḳūt, Buldān, ed. Beirut, iii, 389-90. 2. A settlement to the north of the old city of Damascus, on the slopes of Mount Ḳāsiyūn [ q.v.]. Yāḳūt describes it as a large village with markets and ¶ a …

Yeñi Ḳalʿe

(114 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, in Turkish, “the New Fortress”, a fortress in the southeastern Crimea. It was founded by the Ottoman sultan Muṣṭafā II [ q.v.] in 1114/1702 to protect the nearby port of Kerč [ q.v.] and provide a counterweight to Azov, which had been conquered by Peter the Great in 1696 (and held by Russia for 17 years) [see azaḳ ]. When Catherine the Great’s armies marched into the Crimea in 1771, Yeñi Ḳalʿe and Kerč fell into Russian hands without resistance and in the Treaty of Küčük Ḳaynard̲j̲a [ q.v.] of 1774, the Porte ceded its rights to them, thus giving Russia control of the northern Black Sea shores. (Ed.)…

Taḳrīẓ

(230 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lit. “The act of praising”, a minor genre of mediaeval Arabic literature which consisted of statements praising the virtues of a particular work, some composed after the death of the author of the work in question but probably for the most part composed at the time of the work’s appearance with the aim of giving it a puff and thus advertising it; such statements must have been solicited by the author from obliging friends and colleagues, the more eminent the better. F. Rosenthal (see below) has felicitously compared them to modern ¶ “blurbs” of publishers to…

Bāriḥ

(116 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ar.), a term applied to a wild animal or bird which passes from right to left before a traveller or hunter; although opinions differ on this point, this is generally interpreted as a bad omen, because, it is said, it presents its left side to the hunter who does not have time to take aim at it; an animal which passes from left to right ( sāniḥ ) is on the contrary of good omen. The nāṭiḥ approaches from the front, and the ḳaʿīd from the rear. (Ed.) Bibliography Freytag, Einleitung, 163 Wellhausen, Reste 2, 202 Doutté, Magic at religion, 359 Ḏj̲āḥiẓ. Tarbīʿ, ed. Pellat, index L.A. s.v. Maydānī, under ma…

al-D̲j̲assāsa

(133 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “the informer”, “the spy”, a name which seems to have been given by Tamīm al-Dārī [ q.v.] to the fabulous female animal which he claimed to have encountered on an island upon which he had been cast by a storm, at the same time as the Dad̲j̲d̲j̲āl [ q.v.] who was chained there; the latter being unable to move about, the D̲j̲assāsa, which is a monster of gigantic size, brings him whatever news it has gathered. Assimilated by later exegesis with the Beast ( dābba [ q.v.]) mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (XXVII, 84/82), it adds considerably to the fantastic element in travellers’ and geogra…

Penče

(139 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t., from Persian pand̲j̲a “palm of the hand”), a term of Ottoman Turkish diplomatic. It was a mark, somewhat resembling an open hand and extended fingers, affixed (on either of the left- or right-hand margins or at the foot of the scroll) to documents, such as fermāns [see farmān ] and buyuruldus [ q.v.], issued from the Ottoman chancery by higher officials such as viziers, beglerbegs and sand̲j̲aḳ begs . (Ed.) Bibliography F. Kraelitz-Greifenhorst, Studien zur osmanische Urkundenlehre. 1. Die Handfeste ( Penče) der osmanischen Wesire, in MOG, ii (1923-6), 257 ff. İ.H. Uzunçarşili, Tuğr…

D̲j̲ebed̲j̲i

(355 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(T. “armourer”), the name given to a member of the corps of “Armourers of the Sublime Porte” ( Ḏj̲ebed̲j̲īyān-i dergāh-i ʿālī ), a Ḳapi̊ Ḳulu [ q.v.] Corps closely associated with the Janissaries [ q.v.]. Their function was to manufacture and repair all arms, ammunition and other equipment belonging to the Janissaries and, on campaign, to transport this equipment to the front, distribute it to the Janissaries and to collect it at the end of the campaign, keeping a record of losses and repairing damaged items. The Corps was presumably founded shortly after the Janissaries and, unt…

Rad̲j̲ʿiyya

(56 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), also irtid̲j̲āʿ , the term coined in modern Arabic for reaction in the political sense (from r-d̲j̲-ʿ “to return”). Towards the same end of the political spectrum appear also the terms muḥāfiẓ “conservative” and muḥāfaẓa “conservatism”; cf. A. Ayalon, Language and change in the Arab Middle East , New York-Oxford 1987, 125. (Ed.)

Ibn (al)-Zabīr

(326 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Kat̲h̲īr ʿAbd Allāh b. (al-) Zabīr b. al-As̲h̲yam al-Asadī , Arabic poet of the 1st/7th century. He became a writer of panegyrics of the local Umayyads and wrote particularly, in an entirely classical manner, in praise of Asmāʾ b. K̲h̲ārid̲j̲a: but he did not hesitate to address praises to the Zubayrids after Muṣʿa b. al-Zubayr, who had seized Kūfa, had treated him leniently when his supporters had arrested him; it was, so to speak, as a private person that he wrote a hid̲j̲āʾ against ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, who had treated badly his own brother ʿAmr, a friend of the poet. According to the Ag…

Naw Bahār

(129 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a pre-Islamic sacred site and monastery at Balk̲h̲ [ q.v.] in what is now northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, destroyed by the Arab invaders, but famed in early Islamic history as the place of origin of the Barmakī family of officials and viziers in early ʿAbbāsid times, the eponym Barmak having been the head or abbot ( pramuk̲h̲a ) of Naw Bahār. See on the shrine, almost certainly a Buddhist one, al-barāmika . 1. Origins; to the Bibl . there should be added Le Strange, Lands , 421-2; Barthold, An historical geography of Iran , Princeton 1984, 14-15; R.W. Bulliet, Naw Bahār and the survival of Iranian Buddh…

Umm al-Samīm

(96 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, an extensive, low-lying area of quicksands and salt-flats ( sabk̲h̲a [ q.v.]) in the interior of ʿUmān and on the fringes of the "Empty Quarter" [see al-rubʿ al-k̲h̲ālī ], centred on lat. 21° 50′ N. and long. 56° E. It spans the undefined border beween the Sultanate of Oman and the easternmost part of Saudi Arabia. To the north and east of Umm al-Samīm lie the territories of the mainly Ibāḍī G̲h̲āfirī tribe of al-Durūʿ or al-Dirʿī and the Sunnī tribe of ʿIfār [ q.vv.]. (Ed.) Bibliography See those to al-durūʿ, al-ʿifār and al-rubʿ al-k̲h̲ālī.

Bālig̲h̲

(455 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a), major, of full age; bulūg̲h̲ , puberty, majority; opp. ṣag̲h̲īr , minor, ṣabī , boy, ¶ ṣug̲h̲r , minority. Majority in Islamic law is, generally speaking, determined by physical maturity in either sex (the S̲h̲āfiʿīs explicitly lay down a minimum limit of nine years); should physical maturity not manifest itself, majority is presumed at a certain age: fifteen years according to the Ḥanafīs, S̲h̲āfiʿīs and Ḥanbalīs, eighteen years according to the Mālikīs (various other opinions are ascr…

al-T̲h̲aʿālibī

(147 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Mak̲h̲lūf al-D̲j̲azāʾirī, Abū Zayd, Mālikī theologian and Ḳurʾānic scholar of North Africa (786-873/1384-1468). Born in Algiers, he studied in the eastern Mag̲h̲rib and Cairo, and made the Pilgrimage, before returning to teach in Tunis, where he died. His main work is a Ḳurʾānic commentary, al-Ḏj̲awāhir al-ḥisān fī tafsīr al-Ḳurʾān (printed Algiers 1323-8/1905-10), but he wrote several other works on aspects of the Ḳurʾān, on the Prophet’s dreams, on eschatology, etc., most of them still in manuscript. (Ed.) Bibliography Aḥmad Bābā al-Tinbuktī, Nayl…

al-Fallūd̲j̲a

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of an ancient locality, still existing, of ʿIrāḳ; it is situated on the Euphrates down-stream from al-Anbār [ q.v.] and near Dimmimā, from where the nahr ʿĪsā branched off towards Bag̲h̲dād. At al-Fallūd̲j̲a nowadays the main road from Bag̲h̲dād crosses the Euphrates. (Ed.) Bibliography Muḳaddasī, 115 Suhrāb, 123 Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, 84 Ibn Ḥawḳal, 165 Musil, The middle Euphrates, 269-71 Le Strange, 66, 68 (distinguishing two villages of the same name, the second at the point where the nahr al-Malik branches off; but there seems to be some confusion here) M. Canard, H’amdânides, 147.
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