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Ik̲h̲lāṣ

(1,294 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
The IVth form adds to the double idea of the root—purity and salvation—that of “dedicating, devoting or consecrating oneself” to something. Ik̲h̲lāṣ is pre-eminently an interior virtue of the faithful Muslim, which implies both the unadulterated purity (and thus sincerity) of religious actions, pure (exclusive) worship given to God and pure (absolute) devotion to God and the Community of Believers. The perfection of one’s adherence, and witness, to faith is gauged by ik̲h̲lāṣ and iḥsān (uprightness in good). The Ḳurʾān often uses the participle muk̲h̲liṣ , …

G̲h̲ufrān

(115 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, maṣdar of g̲h̲afara , to forgive; refers to the two Ḳurʾānic Divine Names, al-g̲h̲afūr and al-g̲h̲affār , the Forgiver and He who unceasingly forgives. Thus: act of man forgiving an offence, but essentially: act of God forgiving sins. The term g̲h̲ufrān belongs to the vocabulary of ʿilm al-kalām , e.g. treatise on the “Last Things” ( al-waʿd wa’l-waʿid ) and chapter on tawba ; and to the vocabulary of taṣawwuf , e.g. “dwelling-place” ( maḳām ) of repentance ( tawba). Frequent synonym: al-ʿafw , which places the emphasis on forgiveness conceived as (tota…

Ḥaḳīḳa

(1,805 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, Various approximate translations of this word can be given, as will appear. The meanings that predominate are “reality”, in the sense of the intelligible nucleus of the thing existing, or “nature” of the thing, or “transcendental truth” of that which exists. The term is not Ḳurʾānic, unlike ḥaḳḳ (the “real”, the “true”), a divine Name, from which it must be distinguished (see below). As al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī indicates ( Taʿrīfāt , Leipzig 1845, 94), ḥaḳīḳa derives from ( ḥaḳḳ →) ḥaḳīḳ , which with the addition of the becomes an abstract substantive. — For a more precise understanding…

D̲j̲anna

(5,751 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, “Garden”, is the term which, used antonomastically, usually describes, in the Ḳurʾān and in Muslim literature, the regions of the Beyond prepared for the elect, the “Companions of the right”. E.g.: “These will be the Dwellers in the Garden where they will remain immortal as a reward for their deeds on earth” (Ḳurʾān, XLVI, 14). Other Ḳurʾānic terms will be considered later either as synonyms or as particular aspects of the “Garden”: ʿAdn and D̲j̲annāt ʿAdn . (Eden, e.g., LXI, 12), Firdaws (“Paradise”, sg. farādis , cf. παράδεισος XXIII, 11), the Dwelling of Salvation or of Peace ( dār al-Sa…

al-Ḳaḍāʾ Wa ’l-Ḳadar

(2,598 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
When combined into one expression, these two words have the overall meaning of the Decree of God, both the eternal Decree (the most frequent meaning of ḳaḍāʾ) and the Decree given existence in time (the most frequent sense of ḳadar). Other translations are possible: for example, ḳaḍāʾ, predetermination (usually eternal but according to some schools operating within time); ḳadar, decree (usually operating within time but according to some schools eternal) or fate, destiny, in the sense of determined or fixed. It is also possible ¶ to use ḳaḍāʾ alone for Decree in its broadest sense…

Kas̲h̲f

(2,458 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, the act of lifting and tearing away the veil [which comes between man and the extra-phenomenal world]. Al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲ānī’s Taʿrīfāt (ed. Flügel, Leipzig 1845, 193) states that, according to the Arabic lexicon, kas̲h̲f means “to take away the veil”, but in technical terminology ( iṣṭilāḥ ) it means “to make appear in a complete and actual realisation the mysterious senses and the realities which are behind the veil”. It is worthy of note (see below) that this definition copies word-for-word a text of the Imāmī scholar…

Hayūlā

(2,374 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, a technical term taken from the Greek ὕλη, “matter” as opposed to “form”, ṣūra (εἶδος), or more precisely “primary matter” in the philosophical sense. The corresponding Arabic word is mādda ; the sense that is sometimes very close to that of ʿunṣur , “element”, should also be noted. In the 3rd/9th and 4th/10th centuries, the term hayūlā ¶ is current in translations from the Greek, and in the researches and systems that draw their inspiration from these. According to the taste of the various schools and authors, hayūlā is sometimes substituted for mādda, and sometimes distinguished fro…

Fiʿl

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, pl. afʿāl , actuation, act, and sometimes the result of an act, that is to say effectuation, effect. From its current usage in Arabic, this word very quickly became a technical term ( iṣṭilāḥ ), not only in grammar but also in falsafa and in ʿilm al-kalām . If ʿamal [ q.v.] designates the realms of ‘doing’ and ‘acting’ (whence ‘work’, human acts, and moral action), and thus has at least in its last meaning an ethical connotation, fiʿl refers above all to noetic and ontological values: the fact of actuating, of passing (or causing to pass) to the per…

Ḥisāb

(1,651 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, “account to be rendered to God”. Although the Ḳurʾān sometimes uses ḥisāb in the sense of computation (X, 5 and XVII 12), it is very often used by antonomasia as the “reckoning” which God will require from a man on the Day of Judgement. The expression yawm al-ḥisāb (XL, 27; XXXVIII, 16, 26, 53; cf. XIV, 41), “the Day of the Rendering of Accounts”, is synonymous with yawm al-dīn , “the Day of Judgement”. The eschatological ḥisāb is to be given to God alone (XIII, 40; XXVI, 113); He will require it from all men, but especially from the ungodly (LXXXVIII, 26; XIII, 18 and…

D̲h̲arra

(395 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, a term denoting, in the Ḳurʾān or ḥadīt̲h̲s , the smallest possible appreciable quantity. The Ḳurʾān uses it five times, in the expression mit̲h̲ḳāl al-d̲h̲arra , “the weight of a d̲h̲arra” ,—to extol the Omniscience of God (X, 61; XXXIV, 3), or His absolute Omnipotence (XXXIV, 20), or His supreme Justice in retribution: IV, 40 and the celebrated text XCIX, 7-8 “He who shall have done the weight of one d̲h̲arra of good shall see it; he who shall have done the weight of one d̲h̲arra of evil shall see it”. Commentators on the Ḳurʾān and interpreters of ḥadīt̲h̲s have explained d̲h̲arra by two im…

Istiṭāʿa

(1,451 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, capacity, power to act, maṣdar of the tenth form of ṭāʿ , to obey. If the term itself is not ḳurʾānic, the verb istaṭāʿ is used frequently in the text. Like its maṣdar, it was to become a technical ¶ term of the uṣūl al-dīn and the ʿilm al-kalām . The translation “capacity” is generally used (for example Tritton, Muslim Theology , London 1947, 68 and n. 2). Wensinckprefers “faculty”, others “power” ( pouvoir ). In this last sense, the ʿilm al-kalām readily considers ḳudra and istiṭāʿa to be identical (see remarks of ʿAbd al-D̲j̲abbār, S̲h̲arḥ al-uṣūl al-k̲h̲amsa , ed. …

Ḏj̲uzʾ

(770 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
(pl. ad̲j̲zāʾ), part, particle, term used in the technical language of kalām and of falsafa ¶ to describe the (philosophical) atom in the sense of the ultimate (substantial) part, that cannot be divided further, al-d̲j̲uzʾ allad̲h̲ī lā yatad̲j̲azzāʾ (cf. al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲ānī, Taʿrīfāt , ed. Flügel, Leipzig 1845, 78); al-d̲j̲uzʾ al-wāḥid is sometimes used. Synonym: “elementary and indivisible matter”: d̲j̲awhar fard ; al-d̲j̲awhar al-wāḥid allad̲h̲ī lā yanḳasim .—For other definitions of vocabulary see d̲h̲arra . Atomistic conceptions of the world (philosophical atomism) …

Birr

(47 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
(Ḳurʾānic term), “pious goodness” (R. Blachère’s translation; see Ḳurʾān, ii, 189). In the analysis of the spiritual states ( aḥwāl ) and the attitude of the soul towards God, it must at the same time be compared with and distinguished from taḳwā [ q.v.]. (L. Gardet)

Fitna

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, the primary meaning is “putting to the proof, discriminatory test”, as gold, al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī says in his Taʿrīfāt (ed. Flügel, Leipzig 1845, 171), is tested by fire. Hence the idea of a temptation permitted or sent by God to test the believer’s faith, which, for the man wedded to his desires, would have the appearance of an invitation to abandon the faith. “Your goods and children are fitna ” (Ḳurʾān, VIII, 28; LXIV, 15). The term fitna occurs many times in the Ḳurʾān with the sense of temptation or trial of faith (“tentation d’abjurer”, according to R. Blachère’s tra…

Kalām

(2,870 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, in the sense of kalām Allāh the Word of God, must here be distinguished from 1) kalām meaning ʿilm al-kalām [ q.v.], “defensive apologetics”, or “the science of discourse” (on God); and 2) kalima [ q.v.] which, in the expression kalimat Allāh , means “a” (single) divine utterance. Kalām Allāh is found at least three times in the Ḳurʾān (II, 75, IX, 6, XLVIII, 15). God spoke to the prophets (II, 253); He spoke “clearly” to Moses (IV, 164, VII, 143), who had been chosen to transmit His messages and His Word (VII, 144); God…

D̲h̲ikr

(3,743 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, reminding oneself. “Remind thyself of ( ud̲h̲kur ) thy Lord when thou forgettest” ( Ḳurʾān , XVIII, 24). Thus: the act of reminding, then oral mention of the memory, especially the tireless repetition of an ejaculatory litany, finally the very technique of this mention. In taṣawwuf the d̲h̲ikr is possibly the most frequent form of prayer, its muḳābal (“opposite correlative”) being fikr [ q.v.], (discursive) reflection, meditation. In his Ṭawāsīn , in connexion with Muḥammad’s “nocturnal ascension”, al-Ḥallad̲j̲ declares that the road which passes through “the garden of d̲h̲ikr”

Kawn wa-Fasād

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, “generation and corruption”. The expression is frequently found in the vocabulary of falsafa as the translation of the two Greek words γένεσις and φθορά, and it is also how Aristotle’s De generatione et corruptione is rendered in Arabic. The references entail an analysis of cosmology, a measure of psychology and some metaphysical developments of the Falāsifa . The ideas in question acquired various nuances of meaning, by measure of the system and theory of each faylasūf , but they always harked back to the Aristotelian meaning. The term is most fr…

Duʿāʾ

(2,026 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, appeal, invocation (addressed to God) either on behalf of another or for oneself ( li...), or else against someone ( ʿalā ...); hence: prayer of invocation, calling either for blessing, or for imprecation and cursing, connected with the Semitic idea of the effective value of the spoken word. Cf. Ḳurʾān XVII, 11: “Man prays for evil as he prays for good”.— Duʿāʾ therefore will have the general sense of personal prayer addressed to God, and can often be translated as “prayer of request”. I.—The scope and practice of duʿāʾ . 1. In the Ḳurʾān, duʿāʾ always keeps its original meaning of invo…

D̲j̲ahannam

(406 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, Gehenna (Hebrew gēhinnōm , valley of the Gehenna); the Arabic word evokes etymologically the idea of “depth” (cf. infernus ). Used very often in the Ḳurʾān as a synonym of nār (“fire”), d̲j̲ahannam must accordingly be rendered by the general idea of Hell. The same is true in traditions. Exegetists and many treatises on kalām (or taṣawwuf ) were, subsequently, to give it a particularized connotation. The description of the Muslim Hell, the problems relating to it and consequently the references to verses in the Ḳurʾān mentioning d̲j̲ahannam, are considered in the article nār: here only …

Iʿtiḳād

(681 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, the act of adhering firmly to something, hence a firmly established act of faith. In its technical sense, the term denotes firm adherence to the Word of God. It may be translated in European languages by the words “croyance”, “belief”, “Glauben”, with the proviso that this “belief” is not a simple “opinion” or “thinking” ( pensée ), but is the result of a deep conviction. As the root tʿ-ḳ-d indicates, the idea of a “knot”, a bond established by contract, persists. The VIIIth verbal form combines with this a greater measure of firmness and coherence. Iʿtiḳād recurs m…
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