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Parabalani

(153 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[English Version] Parabalani, von griech. παραβαλαn̆ει˜ς/parabalanei´s, »Krankenpfleger«, alexandrinisches Kirchenpersonal, das für die Behandlung der Kranken zuständig war (Cod. Theod. XVI 2,43). Während ihre Herkunft, ihr Status innerhalb des Klerus und ihre genaue Arbeit rätselhaft bleiben, bilden sie etwa im 5.Jh. eine auserlesene Macht, die aus den ärmeren Gesellschaftsschichten rekrutiert wurde und sich als überaus loyal gegenüber den geistl. Autoritäten erwies. Bischöfe gebrauchten sie gelegen…

Paphnutius

(85 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[English Version] der Anachoret (4.Jh., Ägypten), isoliert lebender Asket aus der Gegend von Heracleopolis im Faijum. Er verstarb kurz vor dem Besuch einer Gruppe von Pilgern an seiner Einsiedelei i.J. 394/95, die Gesch. über ihn sammelten und aufzeichneten (Historia monachorum 16). Die Erzählungen vergleichen lobend das Leben von drei Stadtbewohnern (einem Flötenspieler, einem Bürgermeister und einem Perlenhändler) mit dem asketischen Leben des P. James E. Goehring Bibliography A.-J. Festugie`re, Les moines d'orient, Bd.4/1: Enque^te sur les moines d'egypte, 1964, 90–97.

Theodor

(196 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[English Version] von Tabennisi (4.Jh., Ägypten), vierter Generalabt der pachomianischen Klöstergemeinschaft (Koinonia). Geb. als Sohn einer angesehenen Familie Oberägyptens, schloß er sich 328 der pachomianischen Bewegung an und wurde zum Vertrauten des Pachomius. Später übernahm er die Führung der Bewegung von Horsiesi und konnte das drohende Auseinanderbrechen der Koinonia verhindern. Er verschaffte der zentralisierten Autorität wieder Geltung, entwickelte neue Regeln zur Sicherung der Einheit d…

Pachomius

(362 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[English Version] (ca.292–346 Pbow), äg. Heiliger und Begründer des koinobitischen (Koinobiten) Mönchtums. Es wird berichtet, daß er einer nicht-christl. Familie in der Nähe von Theben entstammte. Kurz nach seiner Bekehrung im Alter von 20 Jahren wandte er sich dem asketischen Leben zu und wurde Schüler des Anachoreten Palamon. Seine Vorstellung einer straffer organisierten Form des asketischen Lebens veranlaßte ihn, 323 seine eigene Gemeinschaft in dem verlassenen Dorf Tabennesi zu gründen. Das v…

Horsiesi

(132 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (4th cent. ce, Egypt). Horsiesi was a follower of the coenobitic monk Pachomius. Appointed as head of the monastery of Seneset, he was named by Pachomius's successor Petronius on his deathbed as the third superior of the entire Pachomian community. Unable to quell the divisions that had arisen within the community following Pachomius's death, he appointed Theodore as his replacement and withdrew to Seneset. On Theodore's death he successfully resumed the position of superior, though grumbling about his leadership ¶ continued. His surviving writings include the Libe…

Hieracas

(138 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (late 3rd – 4th cent., Egypt) was a creative Christian scholar who formed a separatist ascetic community in the city of Leontopolis. Influenced by Origen's thought, his teachings included the rejection of marriage, belief in a spiritual resurrection, and the identification of the Holy Spirit with Melchizedek. He wrote in both Greek and Coptic, composing canticles and commentaries for use in his community. Rejected by the institutional church, he is known today chiefly through the hostile report of Epiphanius of Salamis ( Haer. 67). James E. Goehring Bibliography A. H…

Parabalani

(153 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (from Gk παραβαλανεῖς/ parabalaneís, lit. “bath attendants”), Alexandrian church personnel, assigned to care for the sick ( Cod. Theod. XVI 2.43). While their origin, clerical status, and the precise nature of their work remain obscure, by the 5th century they were a select force, recruited from the poorer sections of society, who proved fiercely loyal to the ecclesiastical ¶ authorities. Bishops made use of them on occasion for ruthless accomplishment of their goals. Parabalani seem to have been involved in the murder of Hypatia of Alexa…

Paphnutius the Confessor (Saint)

(98 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (late 3rd – 4th cent., Egypt), bishop and ascetic. Paphnutius was mutilated in the early persecutions of the 4th century. Later he participated in the Council of Nicea, where he defended married clerics and gained the favor of Constantine the Great (Tyrannius Rufinus, Hist. eccl. X 4.18; Sozomen, Hist. eccl. I 10.23). He is reputed to have had links with St. Anthony (Athan., Vita Antonii, 58), and is credited with miracles. James E. Goehring Bibliography F. Winkelmann, “Paphnutius. Der Bekenner und Bischof,” in: P. Nagel, ed., Probleme der koptischen Literatur, 1968, …

Sabas (Saint)

(174 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (439, Cappadocia – May 12, 532, Palestine), founder of the Great Laura (Mar Saba). Sabas moved to Palestine as an ascetic at the age of 17, where he was sent to a monastery by Euthymius. He eventually embraced an anchoritic life, wandering in the desert for a number of years before settling in a cave in the Cedron Ravine. He began to attract disciples, which marks the beginning of the Great Laura. Its success led to the foundation of other related ascetic communities nearby. Sabas…

Paphnutius the Hermit (Saint)

(77 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (4th cent., Egypt), anchorite and author of the legendary Vita Timothei et Onuphri (BHO 818). The text recounts Paphnutius’s miraculous journey deep into the Egyptian desert, to the cell of the aged Onuphrius. Paphnutius recorded Onuphrius’s story, and buried him. James E. Goehring Bibliography R.G. Coquin, “Paphnutius the Hermit, Saint,” The Coptic Encyclopedia VI, 1991, 1882f. T. Vivian, Histories of the Monks of Upper Egypt and the”Life of Onnophrius”by Paphnutius, 1993.

Pachomius Rhusanus

(209 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (1508, Zakynthos – 1553, Zakynthos), theologian and popular educator under Turkish rule. Study in Venice was followed by periods as a monk in the Iviron monastery (Athos). Through his thorough knowledge of classical, biblical, and patristic literature he became a warning voice against dangerous teachings of his time. In his book De divinarum Scripturarum utilitate (PG 98, 1333A–1360A), he recommends it as a medicine against religious and moral uncertainty, and against the collapse of language into what have become barbarian dialects.…

Paphnutius the Anchorite (Saint)

(96 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (4th cent., Egypt), ascetic living in solitude from the region of Heracleopolis in the Fayyum. He died in his cell in the year 394/395, shortly before the visit of a group of pilgrims, who collected and recorded stories about him ( Historia monachorum 16). The stories compare favorably the virtuous lives of three urban dwellers (a flautist, the head of a village, and a pearl merchant) with the ascetic life of Paphnutius. James E. Goehring Bibliography ¶ A.-J. Festugière, Les moines d’orient, vol. IV/1: Enquête sur les moines d’Égypte, 1964, 90–97.

Paphnutius the Antilope

(78 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (4th cent., Egypt), ascetic priest, who was visited by Cassian in Scetis. Paphnutius appears as speaker in Cassian’s “On Renunciation” in: Collationes patrum. His preference for solitude earned him the nickname “Antilope” (bubal) (Cass., Collationes III; XVIII 15). He is probably the same figure as Paphnutius Kephalas (Palladius of Helenopolis, Historia Lausiaca 47; Apophth. Patr., Antonius 29). James E. Goehring Bibliography A. Guillaumont, “Paphnutius of Scetis, Saint,” The Coptic Encyclopedia VI, 1991, 1884.

Pachomius, Saint

(369 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (c. 292–346, Pabau), Egyptian saint and founder of cenobitic (Cenobites) monasticism. It is reported that he came from a non-Christian family close to the Thebaid. Shortly after his conversion ¶ at the age of 20 he embraced an ascetic life as a disciple of the anchorite Palamon. His vision of a more organized form of the ascetic life led him to form his own community in 323 in the deserted village of Tabennisi. The regulated communal life that he developed there proved very attractive. By the time of his death…

Sabas

(170 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[English Version] (439 Kappadozien – 2.12.532 Palästina), Gründer der Großen Laura (Mar Saba). Im Alter von 17 Jahren zog S. als Asket nach Palästina, wo er von Euthymius in ein Kloster geschickt wurde. Er entschloß sich letztlich für ein anachoretisches Leben und wanderte einige Jahre durch die Wüste, bevor er sich in einer Höhle im Kidrontal niederließ. Dort sammelte er Schüler um sich; dies gilt als der Beginn der Großen Laura. Ihr Erfolg führte zur Gründung von ähnlichen asketischen Gemeinscha…

Theodore of Tabennisi (Saint)

(187 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[German Version] (4th cent., Egypt) was the fourth general superior of the Pachomian Federation. The son of a prominent Upper Egyptian family, he joined the Pachomian movement in 328 where he became a favorite of Pachomius. He eventually assumed leadership of the movement from Horsiesi, stemming an imminent breakup of the Federation. He reestablished centralized authority, fashioned new regulations to ensure unity among the monasteries within the system, and developed closer ties with the Alexandrian episcopacy. In addition to his major role in the Vita Pachomii, three fragmenta…

Paphnutius

(86 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[English Version] Paphnutius, Bekenner (spätes 3.–4.Jh., Ägypten), Bischof und Asket, wurde in den frühen Verfolgungen des 4.Jh. verstümmelt. P. nahm später am Konzil von Nicaea teil, wo er verheiratete Kleriker verteidigte und das Wohlwollen Konstantins erlangte (Rufinus von Aquileia, h.e. X 4,18; Sozomenus, h.e. I 10,23). Ihm wurden Verbindungen mit Antonius d.Gr. (Ath., Vita Antonii, 58) sowie Wundertätigkeit nachgesagt. James E. Goehring Bibliography F. Winkelmann, P., der Bekenner und Bf., in: P. Nagel (Hg.), Probleme der kopt. Lit., 1968, 145–153.

Paphnutius

(80 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[English Version] (4.Jh., Ägypten), Anachoret und Autor der legendären »Vita Timothei et Onuphri« (BHO 818). Der Text erzählt von P.' wundersamer Reise tief in die äg. Wüste zur Einsiedelei des hochbetagten Onuphrius, dessen Gesch. er aufzeichnete und den er begrub. James E. Goehring Bibliography R.G. Coquin, Art. P. the Hermit, Saint (The Coptic Encyclopedia 6, 1991, 1882f.) T. Vivian, Histories of the Monks of Upper Egypt and the Life of Onnophrius by P., 1993.

Paphnutius

(87 words)

Author(s): Goehring, James E.
[English Version] von Scetis (4.Jh., Ägypten), asketischer Priester, der von Johannes Cassianus in der Scetis besucht wurde. P. erscheint als Sprecher in der dritten von Cassianus' »Collationes patrum« »Über die Entsagung«. Seine Vorliebe für die Einsamkeit brachte P. den Namen »die Antilope« (Bubal) ein (Cass., Collationes III; XVIII 15). Er ist wahrscheinlich identisch mit P. Kephalas (Palladius von Helenopolis, Historia Lausiaca 47; Apophth.Patr., Antonius 29) James E. Goehring Bibliography A. Guillaumont, Art. P. of Scetis, Saint (The Coptic Encyclopedia 6, 1991, 1884).