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Dative: Modern Hebrew

(3,046 words)

Author(s): Halevy, Rivka
The basic function of the dative case, in Hebrew and in many other languages, is to mark an indirect object bearing the relation of recipient ( datum) to the event. It therefore typically occurs with verbs of transfer (prototypically verbs of ‘giving’). In Hebrew the accusative is unmarked while the dative is marked and represented by the ex-allative preposition ל- l- ‘to’, which also appears in the inflected form, e.g., לו lo ‘to-him’. The dative marker is also used to encode the infinitive, e.g., ללכת lalexet ‘to go’. The dative-marked argument can be governed by verbs as well…

Syntax: Modern Hebrew

(10,994 words)

Author(s): Halevy, Rivka
1. Introduction Modern Hebrew is a fusion language, including elements from all the historical layers of the language. To quote Ben-Ḥayyim (1992:59), “nothing in it has died and so there exist—and are in use—different chronological layers side by side, not on top of one another as in languages with a historic continuity”. However, very frequently, in cases in which A´ succeeds A of an earlier layer of Hebrew, both A and A´ coexist, though differentiated either functionally or stylistically. In add…

Reciprocals

(3,304 words)

Author(s): Halevy, Rivka
1. Definition and Scope Studies of reciprocal constructions usually deal with monoclausal reciprocals, which can be divided into lexical and grammatical types. Lexical reciprocals may be regarded as a superordinate term for two types of predicates: (a) lexemes which denote a mutual relation, but are not marked grammatically (morphologically or syntactically) as reciprocals, e.g., verbs of competition, joint action, connecting, dividing, (non-)identity, and relationship; (b) reciprocals that are formed in the lexicon,…

Deixis: Modern Hebrew

(3,309 words)

Author(s): Halevy, Rivka
Deixis in linguistics encompasses the concepts of ‘person deixis’ ( הוא hu ‘he’, היא hi ‘she’, הם hem ‘they [m.]’, and הן hen ‘they [f.]’), ‘spatial deixis’ (demonstrative pronouns and adjectives, and locative demonstrative adverbs, such as פה po/כאן kan ‘here’, הנה hena ‘(to) here, hither’, and שם šam ‘there’), ‘temporal deixis’ (e.g., עכשיו ʿaxšav ‘now’, אז ʾaz ‘then’), ‘social deixis’ (i.e., indicators of social rank and relationship between participants, e.g., אדון ʾ adon ‘Mister, sir’/אדוני ʾ adoni ‘my lord, sir’/כבודו kvodo ‘his honor’גברת gveret ‘Miss, Ms.’/גברתי gvirti ‘my lady’ and אחי ʾ ax̱i ‘my brother’/ אח שלי ʾ ax̱ šeli ‘brother of mine’ and ‘discourse deixis’ (i.e., whose referent or reference is inferable to the addressee from the ‘universe of discourse’ in which the utterance is situated).…

Reflexive

(3,345 words)

Author(s): Halevy, Rivka
1. Definitions and Scope A reflexive verb denotes a verb or construction where the subject and the object refer to the same entity or set of entities. These two roles are often referred to as ‘agent’ and ‘patient’, but unlike in prototypical agent-patient relationships a reflexive verb does not necessarily involve a change of state (Agent; Patient), and thus manifests an intermediate degree of transitivity. A reflexive pronoun, likewise, typically denotes a referent that is identical to that of the …