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Virgil

(161 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[English Version] von Salzburg (nach 700 in Irland – 27.11.784 Salzburg), kam 743 ins Frankenreich (wohl aus dem Kloster Iona). Seit 745/46 wirkte er in Bayern, 749 Bf. von Salzburg, bestattet in dem von ihm erbauten Dom. Konflikt mit Bonifatius wegen der Weigerung, eine Taufe zu wiederholen, die ein bairischer Priester mit einer grammatisch falschen Formel durchgeführt hatte. Bonifatius schwärzte V. bei Papst Zacharias als Häretiker an wegen seines Glaubens an die Antipoden. Die früher zugewiesene…

Anno II of Cologne

(223 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 1010 – Dec 4, 1075). Scion of an influential Swabian family, Anno was educated in the cathedral school at Bamberg, where he later taught; in 1046 he became court chaplain to the emperor Henry III, who made him archbishop of Cologne (1056–1075). After Henry's death, he sought to influence the policies of the regent, the empress Agnes. In 10…

Bruno of Cologne

(178 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (925 – Oct 6, 965) was the youngest son of King Henry I. Reared by bishop Balderich of Utrecht, Bruno became chancellor at the court of his brother Otto the Great in 940 and archchaplain in 951. Election and consecration as archbishop of Cologne followed in 953; simultaneously, Otto I named him dux in the region of Lotharingia. His biographer …

Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals

(634 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] The so-called Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, forged letters of the popes from Clement I to Melchiades (311–314), constitute the most significant portion of the Pseudo-Isidorian corpus, “the most influential forgery of the Middle Ages” (Fuhrmann); the corpus also includes the false capitularies of Benedictus Levita, a falsifying version of the Collectio Hispana (the so-called Hispana Gallica Augustodunensis, found in Codex Vaticanus latinus 1341, from Autun [9th cent.]), and supposed capitularies of Bishop Angilram of Metz (died 791). The cre…

Henry IV

(548 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1050, Goslar? – Aug 7, 1106, Liège). Henry was elected king as early as November 1053 and crowned in July 1054, but his mother Agnes first reigned on his behalf after the death of his father Henry III (Oct 5, 1056), and then, from 1062/1063, archbishops Anno II of Cologne and Adalbert of Bremen. Having come of age in 1065, Henry soon found himself in serious conflict with important princes. The attempt to regain royal holdings in Saxony and to secure them with castles adm…

Benedictus Levita

(96 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] is the name assumed by the alleged author of a collection of laws in three books purporting to be the continuation of the “capitularies” of Ansegis of Fontenelle. Some of the manuscripts also contain appendices. The work consists partly of forged, but partly also of authentic texts (esp. Capitularies, synodal decrees, etc.). Like the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, which also originated around 850, it follows the tendency to suppress lay power in the church. Wilfried Hartmann Bibliography MGH.L 2/2, 39–158 H. Fuhrmann, Einfluß und Verbreitung der …

Eugippius

(158 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (born c. 460 [467?], died shortly after 533). In 482 Eugippius became a monk at Favianis (Mautern an der Donau). In 488, as Riparian Noricum was being evacuated, he and the other monks went to Italy; in 492/496 he became abbot of the monastery at Castellum Lucullanum near Naples. In addition to the Vita Severini (511), he compiled a selection of excerpts from the works of Augustine in 338 chapters, widely read in the Middle Ages, and a monastic rule. The Vita Severini is our most important source for the last years of Roman rule in what …

Burchard of Würzburg

(91 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (died 753), an Anglo-Saxon companion of Boniface, became bishop of Würzburg in 741. He took part in Boniface's reforming synods of 742, 743, and 747. In 750/751, he was commissioned by Pippin, the mayor of the palace, to go to Rome to lay before Pope Zacharias the question of the Frankish kingship. He founded the abbey of St. Andrew in Würzburg and translated the relics of St. Kilian to his own cathedral on Jul 8, 752. Wilfried Hartmann Bibliography A. Wendehorst, LMA II, 1983, 951.

Regino of Prüm

(209 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (died 915, Trier) appears for the first time in sources in 892, when he was elected abbot of Prüm. He was driven from office in 899 and found refuge in Trier, where the archbishop appointed him abbot of St. Martin’s. He is buried in the abbey of St. Maximin in Trier. Regino is noted as the author of a handbook on canon law (906), intended for use in visitations by the bishop’s synodal court, and a world chronicle from the birth of Christ to the year 906 (completed in 908); its con…

Poppo of Stablo and Malmédy (Saint)

(193 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] Poppo of Stablo and Malmédy (Saint), abbot of several monasteries (998, Flanders – Jan 25, 1048). Of noble birth, following pilgrimages to Jerusalem and Rome he had a conversion experience and entered the monastery of St. Thierry near Rheims; in 1008 he and the reformer Richard of St. Vanne went to the abbey of St. Vanne near Verdun. As Richard’s pupil and colleague, he reformed a series of abbeys in Lorraine. In 1020 Emperor Henry II made him abbot of Stablo (Stavelot) and Malméd…

Florus of Lyon

(211 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (perhaps from southern Gaul, died c. circa 860). The deacon Florus worked for several decades at the cathedral of Lyon, which was a center in the 9th century for theological study and scholarly training. In his tractate De electionibus episcoporum, Florus emphasized, in harmony with the tradition of church law, that the bishop could only enter office by means of election by the clergy and the people. A further writing deals with the exemption of the clergy from secular justice. On questions of liturgy, Florus frequentl…

Agobard of Lyon

(122 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 769 – Jun 6, 840). A Visigoth from Septimania who belonged to the circle of Benedict of Aniane. He became archbishop of Lyon in 816; he was deposed as archbishop in 835 after the restoration of Emperor Louis I, the Pious whom Abogard had helped to depose in 833. A single manuscript preserves a series of tractates that show Abogard to be an…

Burchard of Worms

(284 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (born 965, died Aug 20, 1025), the scion of an aristocratic Hessian family, became provost of St. Victor in Mainz and court chaplain. In 1000, Otto III appointed him bishop of Worms. The collection of canons ( Decretum) he assembled between 1008 and 1012 quickly came into widespread use; approx. 80 manuscripts have survived, primarily in Germany and Italy. In the course of the 11th century, it became available in practically every Ger…

Investiture Controversy

(1,009 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] The term Investiture Controversy usually denotes the ecclesio-political conflict between the popes and kings at the end of the 11th century and the beginning of the 12th century. Since the Carolingian period, it had been customary for bishops to be appointed and also invested in office by kings. During the Gregorian Reform of the 11th century, this practice had come under fire, especially since the attack on simoniacs published in 1058 by the cardinal bishop Humbert of Silva Candida …

Sigebert of Gembloux

(163 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 1030 – Oct 5, 1112, Gembloux, Belgium), entered the abbey of Gembloux in the diocese of Liège as a lay brother; he began teaching at the school of the Abbey of St. Vincent in Metz c. 1050 and returned to Gembloux after 1071. He established a reputation as a hagiographer, historiographer (besides a widely read world chronicle extending from 381 to 1111, he wrote the Gesta abbatum Gemblacensium and a catalogue of authors [Literature, History of: V, 2.a], in which he included his own works), calendrical expert (correcting the date of the Incarnat…

Bruno the Carthusian (Saint)

(121 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 1030, Cologne– Oct 6, 1101). Around 1056, he became head of the cathedral school in Rheims, where he wrote commentaries on the Psalms and the Letters of Paul. After clashes with Archbishop Manasses I of Rheims, Bruno went in 1082 first to Molesme, then to Grenoble, where the bishop gave him La Chartreuse as the site for a hermitage. The hermits were to devote themselves not only to prayer and asceticism, but also to manual labor and the copying of books. In 1090, pope Urban II summoned Bruno to the curia. He spent his last years as a hermit in Calabria, where he died. Wilfried Ha…

Guibert of Nogent

(170 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (Apr 15, 1055 [?] – c. 1124) became a monk at the age of 12 and Abbot of Nogent-sous-Coucy (near Laon) in 1104. His autobiography, De vita sua (1114), a mixture of self-confession and memoirs with references to the political situation of his time, is famous on account of the description of his childhood. He also wrote Bible commentaries (Gen, Hos, Amos, Lam) that have yet to be edited. In the work De pignoribus sanctorum he criticizes the veneration of saints and of relics. His Gesta Dei per Francos places the First Crusade in a salvation-historical context and empha…

Paschal II, Pope

(342 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (born Raniero in Bieda near Galeata, consecrated Aug 14, 1099 – Jan 21/22, 1118). With one of the longest pontificates on record, Paschal II has left a mixed impression on historians. He is viewed almost universally as “weaker and more passive than his predecessors,” “less a trailblazer and model than an epigone and heir” (Servatius). He became a monk in his early youth (not at Cluny); Gregory VII appointed him abbot of San Lorenzo in Rome, and in 1078 he was made cardinal priest of San Clemente. In that position, he participated in 1…

Nicholas I, Pope (Saint)

(405 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (pontificate Apr 24, 858 – Nov 13, 867), son of a papal official. Ordained subdeacon by Pope Sergius II (844–847), Nicholas rose to ¶ become a deacon under Leo IV, and became the closest adviser of Benedict III (855–858). His election as pope was influenced by Emperor Louis II. Anastasius Bibliothecarius (Anastasius III) soon became his most important adviser. We are exceptionally well informed about this pope’s actions and aims, since about 170 letters by him, some very extensive, have survived, and his vita in the Liber pontificalis also provide…

Manegold of Lautenbach

(191 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (clearly attested only between 1085 and 1103; possibly died Jan 24). Richard of Cluny (c. 1160) speaks of an itinerant teacher named Manegold who traveled about with his wife and daughters. This figure is probably identical with our Manegold, who was expelled in 1085 from Lautenbach in Alsace by supporters of Henry IV. He took refuge in the abbey of Rottenbuch and ultimately became provost of the abbey of Marbach in Alsace, which he founded in 1089. Mangegold composed two works in 1085. In his Liber contra Wolfelmum, he represents the teachings of the pagan philosop…
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