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Viergöttersteine

(225 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] are parts of Jupiter-Giants-columns (Monumental columns III.), found immediately on top of the columns' substructures (followed upwards by a medial plinth with the 'gods of the week' - e.g. Venus for Friday, Saturn for Saturday, a column shaft, decorated with scales or garlands, with a base and a capital with a Iuppiter riding down a Giant). The figures of gods on Viergöttersteine are usually placed in recessed fields: they are usually Iuno (front), Minerva (left), Mercurius (right) and Hercules (back); other gods can be depicted, however, …

Keroma

(84 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κήρωμα; kḗrōma, Lat. ceroma). In the medical sense, a salve or cerate, Hippoc. Acut. 8 (vol. 2, p. 424) or a salve (Mart. 4,4,10). In Imperial Rome, keroma designated a wax tablet, and also the clayey wax-coloured surface of a wrestling ring that soils the body or neck of the athletes (Juv. 3, 68); from this, the term keroma was extended to the ring or arena itself (Plin. HN 30,5). Also, those employed there were called kērōmatistaí. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Messapian pottery

(239 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Messapian pottery originated on the Italian peninsula of Salento (in Antiquity Messapia or Iapygia) around the mid-7th cent. BC as an independent genre. For the most part, geometric patterns (circles, squares, diamonds, horizontal lines, swastikas, etc.) were sparsely distributed over vessels; later, under Greek influence maeanders were added. Preferred vessel forms were the olla , pitcher and trozzella ( nestoris). Early in the 5th cent. BC, figurative representations, which also included new ornaments (ivy and other leaf motifs), appe…

Diphros

(118 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Four-legged stool, generally with turned legs. A seat for gods and heroes (west frieze of the Siphnian treasury in Delphi; east frieze of the  Parthenon), as well as for common people in scenes from everyday life (geometric amphora Athens, NM Inv. no. 804: workshop scenes). They were made of simple wood or valuable ebony, the inventory lists of the Parthenon even record silver-footed diphroi. A special form is the folding stool (διφρος ὀκλαδίας; díphros okladías), whose legs end in claw-shaped feet.  Furniture;  Sella curulis Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography G…

Monopodium

(145 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek trápeza monópous, Poll. 10,69). Round or rectangular tables with only one central support, whose foot could be carved into floral or mythical motifs. In Greece such tables had been used since the Archaic period but only became more common in Hellenistic times; in Rome, monopodia were very popular ever since their first introduction to the public, being carried along in the triumph of 187 BC (Liv. 39,6,7; Plin. HN. 34,14). Most of those that survive come from the towns around Vesuvius. Varro, (Ling. 5,125) mentions the cartibulum which stood in the compluvium

Sicilian vases

(267 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Just before the end of the 5th cent. BC, production of red-figured vases began in Himera and Syracuse in Sicily. In style, ornamentation, vase shape and themes they reveal considerable influence from Attic vase painting (Meidias Painter). In the second quarter of the 4th century BC a number of Sicilian vase painters emigrated, in order to lay the foundation on the Italian mainland of Campanian and Paestan vase painting  (Campanian vases; Paestan ware). To a limited extent vase pro…

Ceremonial dress

(491 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Wearing the ceremonial dress (CD) distinguished persons in society and identified them in their official roles. This holds true particularly for priestesses, state officials, but also for delegates (herald's staff) and others. In Greece, priests wore a white robe (Pl. Leg. 12,965a), the ungirded  chiton, which could also be red, or, less often, dyed with saffron or purple. Another characteristic was the  wreath ( stephanophóroi, ‘wearers of the wreath’, was thus the name of priests in e.g. Miletus); less commonly, priests displayed the attribu…

Kanoun

(237 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τὸ κανοῦν; tò kanoûn). Flat - sometimes quite small - basket woven from willow twigs, round or oval in shape, with three handles; a kanoun could sometimes also be made from bronze (e.g. Hom. Il. 630) or gold (Hom. Od. 10,355; Eur. IA 1565). Mentioned already by Homer (Hom. Il. 9,217; Hom. Od. 1,148) as a household item in which bread, onions (Hom. Il. 11, 630) etc. are placed on the table during meal times (wastebasket in Hom. Od. 20,300 ?). Also mentioned by Homer as a sacrificial implement for cult sa…

Lakaina

(116 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λάκαινα; lákaina). A drinking vessel listed as a cup in Ath. 11,484f.; the technical term is used in archaeological research to describe a vessel with a goblet-like body and round-bellied lower part, with two horizontal handles. Produced predominantly in Sparta from the 8th cent. BC onwards, the L. became a model for Laconian vasepainting of the 7th cent. BC. The design was discontinued after the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Its decoration was usually ornamental, but black- glazed examples do occur. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography C. M. Stibbe, Lakon. Vasenma…

Tribon

(99 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τρίβων/ tríbōn, τριβώνιον/ tribṓnion). A coat ( himátion, cf. pallium ) of 'bristly' wollen material, worn by Cretans (Str. 10,4,20) and Spartans (Plut. Lycurgus 30; Plut. Agesilaus 30; Ael. VH 7,13); later also common in Athens (Thuc. 1,6,3). It was part of the clothing of simple people (Aristoph. Eccl. 850; Aristoph. Vesp. 1131), farmers (Aristoph. Ach. 184; 343) and lakōnizóntes ('imitators of Spartan customs', Dem. Or. 54,34). From the time of Socrates (Pl. Symp. 219b; Pl. Prt. 335d; Xen. Mem. 1,6,2) the tribon was also the typ…

Cosmetics

(562 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] In Greek and Roman antiquity there was a huge demand for essences, oils and pomades. As part of their skin care men lotioned themselves to keep their skin soft and tender (Ath. 15,686). Lotioning extended from the head over the entire body and it was a widespread custom to apply lotion several times a day, with a different lotion being used for each part of the body (Ath. 12,553d). Without lotion one was considered dirty. According to tradition, animal fats and butter were the fir…

Kredemnon

(191 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κρήδεμνον; krḗdemnon, Latin calautica, also κάλυμνα/ kálymna, καλύπτρη/ kalýptrē). In general the top covering, also of a wine or storage vessel (Hom. Od. 3,392) or of a circular wall (Hom. Il. 16,100), but subsequently mostly a woman's headscarf which covered the shoulders and could be used to conceal the face (Hom. Il. 14,184; 16,470; Hom. Od. 1,334). In the 5th cent. BC the word continued to be used only in poetry (e.g. Eur. Phoen. 1490); the usual expressions for veils and especially for bridal veils were kálymna and kalýptrē (cf. Aesch. Ag. 1178). The krḗdemnon was a…

Petasos

(207 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πέτασος; pétasos). Greek hat made of felt with a wide brim, also referred to as a 'Thessalian hat' because of its origin (Soph. OC 313); it was worn by women and men who spent a lot of time outdoors (fishermen, herdsmen/women, hunters) or who were travelling; amongst the most best-known mythological petasos wearers were Hermes, Peleus, Perseus, Oedipus and Theseus. Additional wearers are - more rarely - chariot riders (Athen. 5,200f.), horsemen (e.g. on the Parthenon freeze) and the Attic ephebes ( ephēbeía ). The petasos was firmly retained by a strap that was p…

Labrum

(398 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (from lavabrum, diminutive labellum, Greek λουτήριον/ loutḗrion and λεκάνη/ lekánē). The labrum, a large shallow basin with a raised, thickened rim and resting on a high pedestal, served various purposes. As materials used for the labrum, marble, porphyry, clay, stone and others are cited. In the Greek realm, the labrum is a washbasin where men and women cleansed themselves with water; on vases in Lower Italy this often takes place in the presence of Eros, with waterfowl (swans or geese) sometimes cavorting in the water of the labrum. It also often appears in love o…

Tarantinon

(79 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ταραντῖνον; tarantînon). A light diaphanous luxury garment with fringes, first recorded in literature in the 4th century BC (Men. Epitr. 272); the original place of production was Tarentum (Taras), cf. Poll. 7,76. Hetaerae wore it without undergarments (Aristaen. 1,25,  cf.  Ael. VH 7,9). In  Ath. 14,622b male participants in a Dionysian festal procession wear tarantina. Barbaron Hyphasmata; Coae Vestes; Fimbriae; Clothing Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography U. Mandel, Zum Fransentuch des Typus Colonna, in: MDAI(Ist) 39, 1989, 547-554.

Coae Vestes

(160 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Luxury  clothing from the island of Cos, with a transparent effect. They were known as early as Aristotle (Hist. an. 5,19; cf. Plin. HN 4,62) and received special mention during the Roman Imperial period.They were regarded as luxury clothing for demi-mondaines (e.g. Hor. Sat. 1,2,101; Tib. 2,3,57) but were also worn by men as light summer clothing. The sheen, purple colouring and decoration in gold thread, i.a. were highly esteemed. The fabric was woven from the raw silk of the bombyx ( Silk,  Butterfly), whose cocoons produced only short thread…

Limbus

(88 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Ribbon, braid or trimming with a wide variety of meanings. Limbus describes the head band and the belt and even more so the edging and hem on garments (Ov. Met. 6, 127; Verg. Aen. 4,137) that could also be colourful or made of gold (Ov. Met. 5, 51). The band that runs across the celestial globe and contains the zodiac was also called the limbus (Varro, Rust. 2,3,7, Zodiac). Limbi were also the cords on the nets of hunters and fishermen. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Tropa

(136 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τρόπα; trópa). Greek children's games with astragaloi (Astragalos [2]), nuts, etc. (Poll. 9,103; schol.  Pl. Ly. 206e); in consisted in throwing one's own astragalos (or nut, etc.) in such a way that it moved one's opponent's astragalos from its position. In a variant of the game one had to try to drop an astragalos into a small pit in the ground. Tropa was probably also played by young Romans (Mart. 4,14,9). Connected with the game of tropa is Polyclitus' [1] group, known only from literature, known as the 'Boys Playing at Knucklebones' (Plin. HN 34,55)…

Pilleus

(212 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (also pileus). Close-fitting half-spherical or ball-shaped head covering made of fur, felt, leather or wool; adopted by the Romans from the Etruscans (cf. Liv. 34,7). In Rome the pilleus was the mark of a free citizen and was given a slave (Petron. Sat. 41), prisoner of war, or gladiator (Tert. De spectaculis 21) upon manumission. Thus the pilleus libertatis, together with the vindicta , is the attribute of Libertas, who holds them in her hands on Roman coins. P illeus can be used synonymously as an expression for freedom (Mart. 2,68; Suet. Nero 57, cf. Plau…

Clavus

(113 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ‘Nail’, in the context of  clothing: ‘stripes’. The decoration of a  tunic with purple clavi extending from the shoulder to the lower seam at the front and back, served to denote rank in Rome. Senators, their sons (since Augustus) and officials wore a tunic with broad stripes ( lati clavi), equestrians one with small stripes ( angusti clavi). The clavi could be woven in or sewn on, cf.  Dalmatica. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography H. R. Goette, Studien zu röm. Togadarstellungen, 1990, 8-9 J. Bergemann, Röm. Reiterstatuen, 1990, 23-24 B. Levick, A Note on the …
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