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Caphereus

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καφηρεύς, Καφαρεύς; Kaphēreús, Kaphareús). Much feared south-eastern cape of Euboea, modern Kavo Doro. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 8,7,1; Str. 8,6,2; Ptol. 3,14,22; Plin. HN 4,63; Mela 2,107. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 6f.

Imbros

(157 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἴμβρος; Ímbros, modern Turkish Imroz adası). Island in the northern Sporades at the southern exit of the Hellespont, 30 km long, 13 km wide, 225 square km in area, hill country rising to 597 m. The city of I., modern Kastro, was to the east of the north coast; remains of the city walls. Pelasgi or Tyrrheni are named as original inhabitants. Probably owing to Miltiades, I. became Athenian around 500 BC and remained so into the Imperial period (Hdt. 6,41; 104; Thuc. 7,57,2; Xen. Hell. 5,1,31). I. appears …

Hecatonnesi

(113 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἑκατόννησοι; Hekatónnēsoi). Archipelago in the north of the eastern strait which divides Lesbos from the mainland of Asia Minor, modern Moschonisia; its largest island was Pordoselene or Nasos, modern Moschonisi. The inhabitants were known as Nēsiṓtai (Hdt. 1,151; Diod. Sic. 13,77; Str. 13,2,5; Plin. HN 5,137; Ptol. 5,2,5; Ael. NA 2,6; Hsch. s.v. H.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑκατόννησοι and Σελήνης πόλις). The city Selḗnēs pólis was probably founded, like Mytilene, by the Aeolians, on whom it was long dependent culturally and politically. H. was a me…

Lebinthos

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Λέβινθος; Lébinthos). Island of the Sporades east of Amorgos, modern Lévitha, length 7 km, 15 km2 in size, several bays, surrounded by a series of small islands, uninhabited today. Evidence: Str. 10,5,12; Plin. HN 4,70; Mela 2,111; Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21; Ov. Met. 8,222, Ars am. 2,81. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 4, 155f.

Calymna

(474 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάλυμνα; Kálymna) Island of the Sporades north of Cos (also Kálydna or Kálydnai, which probably also referred to the surrounding smaller islands), with the more common modern name of Kalymnos (109 km2, predominantly limestone, maximum height: 686 m). Documented in Hom. Il. 2,677; Stadiasmus maris magni 280f.; Scyl. 90; Hdt. 7,99,2f.; Str. 10,5,19; Diod. Sic. 5,54,1f.; Plin. HN 5,133; 11,32; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kalymna.; [1; 2. 8f. no. 10]. The earliest finds date back to the Neolithic. at the northern end of C., near Emporios, a Mycenaean tholos t…

Anaphe

(234 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀνάφη; Anáphē). Island of the Cyclades (35 km2), east of  Thera (Steph. Byz. s. v. A.), mountainous (Mount Vigla 582 m). Its Greek name has been explained as a derivation from ἀνάπτειν ( anáptein, ‘to flare up’ or ἀναφαίνεσθαι, anaphaínesthai, ‘to appear’), because, when viewed from the ancient settlement of  Thera, A. seems to be lit up by the low sun, giving rise to the legend that  Apollo made the island appear to the  Argonauts, when they were in distress at sea on their return from  Colchis (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1709).…

Icos

(163 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἰκός; Ikós). Island, 62 km2 in size, in the northern Sporades, modern Hallonesos (also Chelidromia or Chilidromia); member of the  Delian League with a tribute of 1,500 drachmae, likewise of the  Athenian League. After the conclusion of peace between the Athenians and Philippus II in 338, the island came under Macedonian suzerainty; in Athenian possession from 42 BC to the late Roman Imperial period. After the fall of Constantinople, I. was under Venetian influence; after 1537 under…

Marmarium

(74 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Μαρμάριον/ Marmárion). Harbour on the SW coast of Euboea, which probably had the purpose of handling the marble from the quarries of Carystus [1]; today's Marmara where, near the chapel of St. Nikolaos, the building elements of a sanctuary of Apollo Marmarios are located. References: Str. 10,1,6; Steph. Byz. s.v. M.; Nonn. Dion. 13,164; Eust. Ilia 281,4. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Topographie und Geschichte der Insel Euboia, 1, 1903, 106.

Aegila

(153 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰγιλία, Αἰγιαλία; Aigilía, Aigialía). Island in the southern  Aegean Sea; Plin. HN 4,57; Plut. Cleom. 31), with an area of 22 km2. In Byzantine times called Antikythera, under Venetian rule Cerigotto. The seemingly sole ancient settlement was located near Palaiokastro in the north-east of the island. To the north of A., an ancient shipwreck was discovered in AD 1900, where the ‘Youth of A.’ and other bronze and marble statues have been found (nowadays at the National Museum in Athens). Amongst the f…

Amorgos

(349 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀμοργός; Amorgós). Easternmost island of the  Cyclades (121 km2), mountainous (Krikelon 821 m). The three ancient main towns of the island were all located on its north-western coast:  Aegiale, Minoa (near the modern main port of Katapola, and modern Chora, officially A.), and Arcesine. The island was densely populated in the prehistoric period, and supposedly served as a trade post from the 3rd millennium onwards. Rich grave finds from the early Cycladic period show close links with Cer…

Budorum

(80 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Βούδορον; Boúdoron). Settlement on  Salamis, important Athenian base during the Peloponnesian War. In 429 BC,  Cnemus laid siege to the fortress to no avail. From his base in B.,  Nicias captured the Megarian fortress of Minoa and Nisaea in 427 BC. Remains of walls were found south-west of the monastery of Phaneromeni (founded in 1661). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography P. W. Haider, s.v. Salamis, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 596.

Gyarus

(163 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γύαρος; Gýaros). Island 17 km2 in size, uninhabited today (micaceous slate) of the north-western Cyclades, modern Jura or Gioura. On the eastern side there are traces of old terrace cultures, and close to a spring and an old mole are the remains of the ancient town of G. that minted its own copper coins in the 3rd cent. BC; at the time of Strabo G. was still only a poor fishing village, in the Imperial period it was a feared place of exile (Tac. Ann. 3,68; 4,30; Plut. Mor. 602c.; Ju…

Delos

(3,027 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Commerce | Ionic | Marble | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Δῆλος; Dêlos), also Lesser D. (ἡ μικρὰ Δῆλος; hē mikrà Dêlos). [German version] I. Geography Island at the centre of the Cyclades, separated from Rheneia or Greater Delos (17 km2) by a channel 1 km wide. The small, now uninhabited island is some 6 km long and 1.2 km wide; it covers an area of 3.5 km2. D. is an elongated rocky ridge jutting from the sea, consisting mainly of gnei…

Histiaea

(427 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἱστίαια; Histíaia). City on the north coast of Euboea, still not identified, probably to be found near Xirochori, a settlement of Thessalian Hellopii and Perrhaebi. The territory of H. originally covered the entire north of Euboea (Dem. Or. 23,213) and was known for its wine (Hom. Il. 2,537). The temple of Artemis Proseoa in Artemisium was its main sanctuary. After the naval battle at Cape Artemisium, the Persians occupied and plunde…

Andros

(344 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἄνδρος; Ándros). With an area of about 384 km2, the second largest island of the Cyclades, seven nautical miles off Cape Caphireas (on the southern tip of  Euboea), mountainous (994 m) and abounding in water. The oldest settlement to date on A. has been discovered on its western coast, near Zagora (peak in the geometric period). In antiquity, its main town was located on the southern coast near Palaiopolis, where town walls, dwellings and a temple dating from the 6th/5th cents. BC have b…

Astypalaea

(185 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀστυπάλαια; Astypálaia). Dodecanese island (97 km2; circumference according to Plin. HN 4,23: 88 milia passuum), situated between  Amorgos,  Anaphe and Calymnus. A. consists of two parts, joined only by a 100m wide isthmus. Evidence of early Bronze-Age settlements has been found on the eastern part, especially in the bay of Vathy. Mycenaean chamber tombs have been excavated in the western part and also near Armenochori. The location of the ancient polis was that of the modern capital of Chora.…

Cythnus

(317 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κύθνος; Kýthnos, Lat. Cythnus, the modern Thermia). Island in the western  Cyclades (86 km2): 21 km long, 11 km wide; a monotonous, undulating plain (height 200 to 350 m.), predominantly slate. Its rugged coastline offers no good harbours. Two hot springs, already active in Roman times, are situated near Lutra on the north coast. C. is little fertile, short of water and virtually without trees. In antiquity C. was known for its fine cheese (Poll. 6,63; Eust. in Dionys. Per. 525; Plin. HN 13,134; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kythnos). Finds in a Mesolithic-Neolithic cemete…

Coela

(66 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κοῖλα; Koîla). The south-east coast of  Euboea (Hdt. 8,13f.; Dion. Chrys. 7,2; 7; Eur. Tro. 84; 90; Ptol. 3,15,25) that was feared because of its storms. In Str. 10,1,2; Val. Max. 1,8,10; Liv. 31,47,1; Oros. 6,15,11, C. is the southern part of the straits of Euboea up to Euripos. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 7ff.

Cecryphalea

(53 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κεκρυφάλεια; Kekrypháleia). Island in the Saronic Gulf, presumably the modern Angistri, mentioned in conjunction with the naval battle between Athens and Aegina in 458 BC (Thuc. 1,105; Diod. Sic. 11,78,2; Plin. HN 4,57; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kekryphaleia) Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Pityonesos, RE 20, 1880f. Philippson/Kirsten 3, 45.

Aedepsus

(158 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰδηψός; Aidēpsós). The spa of A. on  Euboea, famous even in antiquity because of its hot (78°C) mineral springs, sacred to  Heracles, was located about 3 km north of the modern resort of Loutra Aidepsou, location of the polis of A. A. was initially part of the polis of  Histiaea which, in its prime, dominated the entire north of the island. The earthquake of 427 BC caused the springs to run dry for three days (FGrH 85 Demetrius of Callatis fr. 6). As early as in the 3rd cent. BC,…
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