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(521 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Rex in Italy AD 476-493. Son of Edeco, brother of Onulf, probably born in 433 (cf. Iohannes Antiochenus, FHG 4, p. 617, fr. 209,1). O.'s family came from the circles around the court of Attila, and so it is hard to determine to which tribe they belonged [5. 124]. The number and identity of O.'s siblings is also a matter of debate ([4]; contra [2]). After the disintegration of Attila's empire (454) O.'s father and Onulf led the Sciri until 469. O.'s whereabouts during this period are uncertain; his identification with O., the leader of the Saxons, ([4. 347f.], c. 463-469 in Ga…


(201 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] King of the Marcomanni, 2nd cent. AD (Ballomarius). King of the Marcomanni, who, from a position of neutrality (?), together with ambassadors from ten other tribes negotiated a peace with M. Iallius Bassus, the governor of Upper Pannonia, in AD 166, after attacking Germani had suffered a defeat (Cass. Dio, 71,3,1a = Petrus Patricius fr. 6 de Boor = Excerpta de legationibus 2,391 de Boor). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography P. Kehne, s. v. Markomannenkrieg (Hist.), RGA 19, 2001, 308-316, especially 312 (with older bibliography). [German version] [2] King o…


(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king 586-601 AD, son of Leowigild; in 587 he brought about the conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism (Chron. min. 2,218). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography D. Claude, Adel, Kirche und Königtum im Westgotenreich, 1971, 77-91  PLRE 3, 1079 f.


(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Ῥοδογάϊσος/ Rhodogáïsos). Goth king, crossed the Danube in AD 405 and invaded Italy (Zos. 5,26,3; Oros. 7,37,4-17; [1. 206-217; 2. vol. 3,1, 200 f.]). He divided his army into three groups (Chron. min. 1,652); one may have reached Gaul [2. vol. 3,2, 22 f.]. While besieging Florence he was repelled by Stilicho (Paulinus, Vita Ambrosii, ch. 50), surrounded at Fiesole, taken prisoner and executed (23.8.406: Chron. min. 1,299). The survivors evidently defected to the Roman side [3. 213]. PLRE 2, 934. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 M. Cesa, Römisches Heer…


(72 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (also Wacho, Waccho, Vaces). King of the  Langobardi; he killed his uncle Tato, expelled his cousin Ildichis and sought by marriage policies to make alliances with the Thuringi, the Gepidae and the Heruli. Allied with Byzantium, he refused in 539 AD to support  Witigis. V. died shortly afterwards. (Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 1,21;  Procop. Goth. 2,22,11-12). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography J. Jarnut, Geschichte der Langobarden, 1982, 20-22  PLRE 3, 1350.


(87 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] In AD 57 together with Mal(l)orix 'prince' ( regebant, Tac. Ann. 13,54) of the Frisii, who had occupied Roman military territory to the south of the IJsselmeer (Flevum). After the intervention of the Lower German governor L. Duvius Avitus the two requested Rome to allocate the territories to them. Nero did grant them citizenship, but refused to assignment the territories and had the Frisians expelled by force (Tac. Ann. 13,54). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography W. Will, Römische 'Klientel-Randstaaten' am Rhein?, in: BJ 187, 1987, 1-61, esp. 28 f.


(153 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Murderer of Valentinianus [4] III, 5th cent. AD Protector of Valentinianus [4] III, formerly in the service of Aetius [5]. He and Optila murdered Valentinianus in AD 455, in order to avenge the death of Aetius, probably on the instructions of Maximus [8], to whom he delivered the diadem (Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 201,4 f., FHG 4, 615; Chron. min. 1,303, where he is Aetius [2]' son-in-law; 2,86). PLRE 2,1117 f. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) [German version] [2] Magister militum, 5th cent. AD Magister militum in the Eastern empire, executed after a conspiracy aga…


(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Frank in Roman service. As comes domesticorum sent by Gratianus [2] from Gallia to Thracia in AD 377/378 (Amm. Marc. 31,7,4); he became magister militum per orientem in 383, consul in 384. In 388 he took part in the campaign against Maximus [II 7]. R. introduced Eugenius [1] to his nephew Arbogastes (Zos. 4,54,1) who installed Eugenius as emperor on 22 August 392. R. returned to the East. He died in 393 prior to the campaign against Eugenius. R. was in contact with Libanius (cf. Lib. Ep. 972) and Symmachus (Symmachus Ep. 3,54-69). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE…


(90 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Alemannian, brother of Butilinus. L. marched with him to Italy in AD 553 presumably on behalf of the king of the Franks Theodebald I. He parted from Butilinus, and after plundering expeditions in southern Italy went back north alone; after an attack by Byzantine troops he lost his booty again. L. and a large part of his army died of an epidemic in 554 near Ceneta in Venetia (Agathias 1,6; 22,1-3). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 3, 789f. 2 D. Geuenich, Geschichte der Alemannen, 1997, 93f..

Tarbigilus (Tribigild)

(105 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Goth, related to Gainas, comes in the Eastern Empire. Probably an enemy of Eutropius [4]  (Claud. in Eutropium 2,176-180). In 399 AD he and his foederati troops rebelled (with Gainas's knowledge?) against Arcadius in Phrygia (Zos. 5,13,2-4), at first he was victorious over the imperial troops sent against him but afterwards he was defeated by them at Selge (Zos. 5,16,1-5); after uniting his troops with Gainas he marched on Constantinople (Zos. 5,18,4-9). He was killed during battles in Thrace (Philostorgios 11,8; [2. 151]).…

Segericus (Segeric)

(42 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king in 415 AD, brother of Sarus, successor to Ataulfus but assassinated after a few days, probably because of his pro-Roman attitude (Oros. 7,43,9). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 987 2 P. Heather, Goths and Romans, 1991, 197 f.


(168 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Vandals 496-523, grandson of Geisericus, son of Gentunis; successor to his brother Gunthamundus (Procop. Vand. 1,8,8; Chron. min. 2,193; dates of his reign: Chron. min. 3,458 f.). In c. 500, T. married Amalafrida, the sister of the Ostrogoth king Theoderic (Theodericus [3]) the Great (Anon. Vales. 12,68). T.' relationship with the latter was strained in c. 511 by his financially supporting the Visigoth Gesalicus, who had fled to Africa after being defeated by the Ostrogoths (Chron. min. 2,223; Theoderic's letters to T.: Cassi…


(55 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Roman landowner in Bruttium and Lucania; in AD 546 he supported the Byzantines in the reclamation of this region (Procop. Goth. 3,18,20-23). His force of armed farmers, which was supposed to prevent Totila from advancing southwards, broke up under the latter's influence, however (Procop. Goth. 3,22,1-5). PLRE 3,1344. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(88 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Burgundiones from AD 516-523. Son of Gundobad, his successor in 516. His turning towards the Eastern Roman Empire bore him the title patrikios (Avitus Epist. 9). There was a crisis in his reign, after he had his son Sigerich executed (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,5). In 523 his kingdom was raided by the Frank Chlodomer, he himself was imprisoned and killed (Chron. min. 2,235; Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,6). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 1009 f. 2 H. Wolfram, Das Reich und die Barbaren, 21994, 360 f.


(95 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in AD 465-469. R. was probably at the court of the Visigoths in 461. After the death of Frumarius [1. 486 f.] he was elevated to king of all the Suebi in 465 (Chron. min. 2,33). He was son-at-arms of king Theoderic II of the Visigoths (Chron. min. 2,33). He is not identical [2. 667 f.] to the pretender Rechimundus (AD 459-461) [1. 936]. R. was still alive when Hydatius [2] ended his Chronicle (AD 468). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 938 2 D. Claude, Prosopographie des spanischen Suebenreichs, in: Francia 6, 1978, 647-676.

Theodebaldus (Theodebald)

(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] ( Theodebaldus; Θευδίβαλδος/ Theudíbaldos). Frankish king 547-555 AD, son of Theodebert, still a child at the beginning of his reign. Courted by Iustinianus [1] in 551 for an alliance against Totila (Proc. BG 4,24,11-30), T. refused both this and a request for help from the Ostrogoths in 552 (Proc. BG 4,34,17 f.; for the relationship with Byzantium cf. MGH Epp. 3,131 f., 547 AD). Allegedly against T.'s will, however, Leuthari and Butilinus supported the Goths in Italy in 553/4, but w…


(61 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Son of Odoacer; elevated by his father to Caesar in Italy ( c. 489-493 AD); from 493 onwards a hostage of Theoderic [3] the Great, after the death of Odoacer (in 493) banished to Gaul and on attempting to return murdered by Theoderic. (Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 241a, FHG 5, 29; Anon. Vales. 11,54). PLRE 2,1064. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king (Visigoths), from AD 415 the successor of Segericus in Spain. V. may have planned to cross to Africa (see also [2. 89]) in order to escape pressure from Constantius [6] on the Goths, but in 416 he concluded a treaty with Ravenna in which they probably agreed to a Goth initiative against the ot


(128 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Great-grandfather of Eutharic Great-grandfather of Eutharic, Theoderic [3] the Great's designated successor (cf. Cassiod. Var. 11,1,19; Iord. Get. 81; 250 f.; 298). The family tree is probably partially an invention of Cassiodorus. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography P. Heather, Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals, in: JRS 79, 1989, 103-128, esp. 118-120  PLRE 2,1116. [German version] [2] King of the Visigoths, mid-5th cent. Visigoth king 451-453 AD, son of Theoderic [1]. After Theoderic's death in the battle on the Campi Catalauni …


(405 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Τωτίλας/ Tōtílas; alternate name Baduila, e.g. Iord. De summa temporum vel origine actibusque gentis Romanorum 380; [1. 458]). King of the Goths AD 541-552, nephew of Hildebald (Ostrogothic king 540/541), great-nephew of the Visigothic king Theudis. He commanded the Gothic troops in Tarvisium when his uncle was murdered. When Erarich's rule caused…
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