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Abū G̲hānim Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲ānim al-K̲h̲urāsānī

(217 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, eminent Ibāḍī lawyer of the end of the 2nd/8th and the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, a native of Ḵh̲urāsān. On his way to the Rustamid imām ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (168-208/784-823) at Tāhart, to offer him his book al-Mudawwana , he stayed with the Ibāḍī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , Abū Ḥafṣ ʿAmrūs b. Fatḥ, of Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa, who rendered a service to Ibāḍī literature by conserving in the Mag̲h̲rib a copy of the work. The Mudawwana of Abū G̲h̲ānim is the oldest Ibāḍī treatise on general jurisprudence, according to the teaching of Abū ʿUbayda Muslim al-Tamīmī (d. under al-Manṣūr, 136-58/754-75; cf. ibāḍiyya …


(436 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, an ancient Berber people belonging to the branch of the Butr, and to the family of Ḍarīsa, who most probably lived in Tripolitania. If we are to believe Ibn K̲h̲aldūn (8th/14th century) and his sources, the Berber genealogists, the Malzūza were descendants of Fāṭin, son of Tamzīt, son of Ḍarī (eponym of the Ḍarīsa) and were the sister-tribe of the important Berber tribes of the Maṭg̲h̲ara, the Lamāya, the Ṣadīna, the Kūmiya, the Madyūna, the Mag̲h̲īla, the Maṭmāṭa, the Kas̲h̲āna (or Kas̲h̲āta) and the Dūna. The major…

Maḥbūb b. al-Raḥīl al-ʿAbdī

(368 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abu Sufyān , Ibāḍī theologian and historian, originally from the Arabic tribe of the Banū ʿAbd al-Ḳays, who lived in the 2nd/8th century and who is cited in the Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ of al-Dard̲j̲īnī (d. 670/1227 [ q.v.]) amongst the scholars of the fourth ṭabaḳa or class. His family came originally from ʿIrāḳ (his grandfather al-Malīḥ al-ʿAbdī was one of the close friends of the head of the Ibāḍī community in Baṣra, the famous Abu ʿUbayda Muslim b. Abī Karīma al-Tamīmī [see al-ibāḍiyya ]), and he first lived in ʿUmān. Then he settled in Baṣra, …


(15,273 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, one of the main branches of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs [ q.v.], representatives of which are today found in ʿUmān, East Africa, Tripolitania (D̲j̲abal Nafūsa and Zuag̲h̲a) and southern Algeria (Wargla and Mzab). The sect takes it name from that of one of those said to have founded it, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ al-Murrī al-Tamīmī. The form usually employed is Abāḍiyya; this is true not only of North Africa ( e.g., in the D̲j̲abal Natūsa, cf. A. de C. Motylinski, Le Djebel Nefousa , Paris 1898-9, 41 and passim ), where it is attested in the 9th/15th century by the Ibāḍī writer al-Barrādī ( Kitāb Ḏj̲awāhir al-mun…


(617 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Nāṣir b. Miyāl b. Yūsuf , noted Ibāḍī-Wahbī historian, traditionist and biographer. He was descended from Yūsuf al-Lawātī, the vizier of al-Aflah b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, the third Ibāḍī imām of the Rustamid dynasty (208-50/823-71). According to the biographical notices about him given in the works of al-Dardiīnī and al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī, he was born in the first half of the 5th/11th century in the province of Barḳa (Cyrenaica). His nisba indicates that he was from the Berber tribe of the Lawāta [ q.v.], of which several sections were adherents of the…


(4,908 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(literally “circle”, “gathering of people seated in a circle”, and also “gathering of students around a teacher”), among the Ibāḍī-Wahbīs of the Mzāb [ q.v.] a religious council made up of twelve ʿazzāba (“recluses”, “clerks”; on the exact meaning of this word, see R. Rubinacci, Un antico documento di vita cenobitica musulmana, 47-8), and presided over by a s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ . On the mystical sense of ḥalḳa , the Ḳawāʿid al-Islām of al-Ḏj̲ayṭālī [ q.v.], which is the most complete code of the Ibāḍī sect (written probably in the first half of the 8th/14th century), says: “On…


(574 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, abū yaḥyā zakariyyāʾ , chief of the Berber tribe of Nafūsa and last Ibāḍī-Wahbī imām in North Africa. He is probably the same person as R. Basset refers to in error as Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā al-Ird̲j̲ānī, confusing him with his son, Abū Zakariyyāʾ b. Abī Yaḥyā al-Ird̲j̲ānī, who also was chief ( ḥākim ) of the Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa. According to the Ibāḍī document known under the name of Tasmiyat s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa wa-ḳurāhum (6th/12th century), Abū Zakariyyāʾ (error for Abū Yaḥyā Zakariyyaʾ) of Irkān (Ird̲j̲ān) was elected imām after Abū Ḥātim (that is Abū Ḥātim Yūsuf b. Abī ’l-Ya…


(469 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(and also Ḳaṣr Mānū or Tīn Mānū), ancient locality situated on the Mediterranean coast, in the western part of the plain of D̲j̲afāra, between Ḳābis (Gabès) and Aṭrābulus (Tripoli), and on the old route leading from Ifrīḳiya to Egypt. In our opinion it should be identified with [ Ad] Ammonem of the Ancients, a place situated about 30 km. west of the town of Sabratha, Ṣabra of the old Arabic sources. It was here that there took place, in 283/896-7, a great battle between the army of the Ag̲h̲labid amīr s and that of the great Ibāḍī Berber tribe of Nafūsa [ q.v.]. The latter people who lived in th…


(2,128 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(in Leo Africanus: Luntuna or Lumtuna), a great Berber tribe belonging to the branch of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a who led a nomadic life, and like other tribes of this branch forming part of the Mulat̲h̲t̲h̲amūn or “wearers of the veil” [see lit̲h̲ām ]. The Lamtūna nomadised over the western Sahara, where between the 2nd/8th and 5th/11th centuries they played a considerable political role. According to al-Bakrī (459/1067), the region covered by them stretched from the lands of Islam (i.e. the Mag̲h̲rib) to those of the blacks. This is what this ge…


(3,515 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, an important Berber ethnic group belonging to the family of Butr and whose eponymous ancestor was Lawā the Young, son of Lawā the Old. They are distant descendants of the Lebu (Lebou) of the Egyptian documents of the 13th century B.C., of the Lubīm or Lehabīm of the Bible, the Libues (Libyans) of the ancient Greeks, of the Laguantan of Corippus and the Leuathae of Procopius (6th century A.D.). It is probable that the Lebu (Lebou) of the Egyptians lived on the Mediterranean coast of Africa, bet…


(382 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(also al-D̲j̲enāwunī ), Abū ʿUbayda ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd , governor of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa for the Ibādite imāms of Tāhart. He was a native of the village of Īd̲j̲nāwun (also D̲j̲enāwen, in Berber Ignaun) situated below the town of D̲j̲ādū in the present district of Fassāṭo. He already enjoyed great prestige there about 196/811 during the stay of the imām ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rustam in the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa. On the death of Abu ’l-Ḥasan Ayyūb he was elected governor of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa by the people of the country and aft…

Ibn Baraka

(253 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Baraka al-ʿUmānī , Ibāḍī author born in the village of Bahlā in ʿUmān. The exact dates of his life are unknown. However, an Ibāḍī writer of ʿUmān, Ibn Mudād, regards him as a disciple and supporter of the imām Saʿd b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Maḥbūb, who was killed in 328/939-40. He himself played a considerable part in political life in ʿUmān and wrote several historical and juridical works, of which only the following survive: (1) K. al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ . dealing with the principles of law; (2) K. al-Muwāzana , on the state of ʿUmān in the time of ¶ the imām al-Ṣalt b. Mālik; i…

Abu ’l-Muʾt̲h̲ir al-Ṣalt b. K̲h̲amīs al-Bahlawī

(247 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
al-ʿUmānī , Ibāḍī historian and lawyer, native of Bahlāʾ in ʿUmān. His exact dates are not known; but he is counted among the Ibāḍī scholars of the second half of the 3rd/9th century. He left valuable literary materials, especially in the field of history, and also took an active part in the political life of his time, being a zealous partisan of the imām al-Ṣalt b. Mālik, deposed in 273/886-7. Among his works, the following are worthy of note: (1) al-Aḥdāt̲h̲ wa ’l-Ṣifāt , devoted to events in ʿUmān at the time of al-Ṣalt b. Mālik, and to the circumstances of his deposition; (2) al-Bayān wa ’l-Bu…


(925 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, sub-sect ( firḳa ) of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī sect of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.] This sub-sect, whose oiigins were purely political, was founded in what is now Tripolitania around the beginning of the 3rd/9th century by K̲h̲alaf b. al-Samḥ, grandson of the Ibāḍī imām Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb ʿAbd al-Aʿlā al-Maʿāfirī al-Yamānī [ q.v.]. Al-Samḥ b. ʿAbd al-Aʿlā, K̲h̲alaf’s father, was originally the vizier of the Rustamid imām ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-Raljmān [ q.v.], who held him in high esteem, and then after ca. 196/811-12, he was governor of Tripolitania ( ḥayyiz Aṭrābulus ) on behalf of this imām. The new …


(2,356 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(also Madyūna or Medyūna ), an important Berber tribe, belonging to the major branch of Butr and descended from the family of Fāṭin, son of Tamzīt (or Tamṣīt), son of Ḍarīs, son of Zaḥīk (Zad̲j̲īk), son of Mādg̲h̲is al-Abtar. According to Ibn ʿIdhārī, Madyūna was said to be the son of Tamzīt, son of Ḍarī and brother of Maṭmāṭa, Mad̲h̲g̲h̲ara, Ṣadīna, Mag̲h̲īla and Malzūza. According to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, the Midyūna (Medyūna) were related to the Maṭg̲h̲ara, Ṣadīna, Lamāya, Kūmiya, Mag̲h̲īla, Dūna, Maṭmaṭa, Malzūza, Kas̲h̲āna (Kas̲h̲āta) and Ḍarīsa. Little is known of the history of the…

Ibn D̲j̲aʿfar

(148 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abū D̲j̲ābir Muḥammad b D̲j̲aʿfar al-Azkawī , Ibāḍī scholar of ʿUmān, d. 281/894. He was the author of an important work of fiḳh entitled Kitāb al-D̲j̲āmiʿ and usually known as D̲j̲āmiʿ Ibn D̲j̲aʿfar to distinguish it from the other Ibāḍī works with the same title. This work is still unpublished; there are several manuscripts of it in the Mzāb, the earliest of them dated 914/1508. Ibn D̲j̲aʿfar also took part in the political events of his time as supporter of the imām al-Ṣalt b. Mālik. (T. Lewicki) Bibliography A. de C. Motylinski, Bibliographie du Mzab, in Bulletin de Correspondance Afr…


(1,236 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, a Berber tribe belonging to the great branch of the Butr and related, if one is to believe the ancient Berber traditions cited by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn. to the tribes of Ḍarīsa, Saṭfūra, Lamāya, Maṭmāṭa, Ṣadīna, Malzūza and Madyūna who lived, in the early Middle Ages, in eastern Barbary. It is also apparently in the same region that the ancient habitat of Mag̲h̲īla is to be sought in the period in question. According to the Berber traditions cited by various early Arab historians, the Mag̲h̲īla, after coming from Palestine into North Africa, reached…

Ibn al-Ṣag̲h̲īr

(357 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, historian, author of a chronicle on the Rustamid imāms of Tāhert. His work forms the earliest document on the Ibāḍis of North Africa which has survived up to the present, with the exception of extracts from the work of Ibn Salām b. ʿUmar [ q.v.]. The chronicle of Ibn al-Ṣag̲h̲īr was very highly esteemed by the Ibāḍī historians of the Mag̲h̲rib, two of whom, al-Barrādī [ q.v.] and al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī [ q.v.] quote large extracts from it. His opinions concerning the Ibāḍīs of Tāhert and particularly the Rustamids were certainly not hostile, in spite of an anti-Ibāḍī s…


(1,028 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Saʿīd b. Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. Īk̲h̲laf , an Ibāḍi jurist, poet and historian of the 7th/13th century, author of a historical and biographical work on the Ibāḍīs, the Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-Mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ . He belonged to a pious and learned Berber-Ibāḍī family from Tamīd̲j̲ār, a place in the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa in Tripolitania. His ancestor, al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Īk̲h̲laf b. Īk̲h̲laf al-Nafūsī al-Tamīd̲j̲ārī, an eminent faḳīh , lived in the neighbourhood of Nefṭa in the D̲j̲arīd [ q.v.]. Son of Īk̲h̲laf, the pious ʿAlī, who lived in the second half of the 6th/12th cent…

Ibn al-Naẓar

(125 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Sulaymān al-ʿUmānī , Ibāḍī scholar of ʿUmān who lived in the 6th/12th century (he was killed by K̲h̲ardala b. Samāʿa). He was the author of the Kitāb al-Daʿāʾim , a collection of poems on fiḳh of which two editions have been published (one of them in Cairo in 1351). Among his other works there should be mentioned an important Kitāb Silk al-d̲j̲umān fī siyar ahl ʿUmān (T. Lewicki) Bibliography A. de C. Motylinski, Bibliographie du Mzab, in Bulletin de Correspondance Africaine, iii (1885), 19, no. 21 ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥumayd al-Sālimī, al-Lumʿa al-murḍiyya, printed in a collec…
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