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(1,009 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abu ’l-Rabīʿ Sulaymān b. Yak̲h̲laf , famous Ibāḍī historian, theologian and jurisconsult. He was a member, as his nisba indicates, of the Berber tribe of Mazāta [ q.v.], probably from the branch who lived in the mountains of south-east Tunisia beside the tribes of the Lawāta and Zanzafa. All these tribes were living around a district which was called Tāmūlast but whose exact location eludes us and which was, in all probability, the place from which Abu ’l-Rabīʿ originated. It is, indeed, in this locality that there lived…

Banū Īfran

(6,375 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(or Ifran , Ifrān , Ufrān Ūfrān etc.). the most important branch of the large Berber tribe of the Zenāta (Zanāta [ q.v.]). According to the writings, now lost, of three Berber genealogists used by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, namely Sābiḳ b. Sulaymān al-Maṭmāṭī, Hanīʾ b. Masdūr al-Kūmī and Kaḥlān b. Abī Luwā, the Banū Īfran are descended from Īṣlitan (also Yaṣlitan), son of Misrā, son of Zākiyā, son of Wardīran (or of Wars̲h̲īk), son of Adīdat. According to the same tradition, Zākiyā was the brother of Dammar (Demmer), the eponymo…


(11,854 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, a major confederation of Berber tribes belonging to the Butr group and forming the most powerful branch of the family of the Zanāta. The ascendancy, real or imaginary, of this confederation is traced back to Mag̲h̲rāw, who is said to have been, according to the mediaeval Berber genealogists, the ancestor of the Mag̲h̲rāwa as such. Following the Arab and Berber sources utilised in the 8th/14th century by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn in his History of the Berbers , the “cradle” of the Mag̲h̲rāwa and “the ancient seat of their power” was the territory located on t…


(1,924 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, abū ḥātim yaʿḳūb b. labīd , famous Ibāḍī imām . He is mentioned in the Kitāb al-Sīra wa-ak̲h̲bār al-aʾimma , an Ibāḍī chronicle written shortly after 504/1110-11 by Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā b. Abī Bakr al-Ward̲j̲lānī. Abū Ḥātim was also known by other names. In the chronicle (which is at one and the same time a collection of biographies of famous Ibāḍī-Wahbī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s ) composed by Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī towards the beginning of the 10th/16th century and entitled Kitāb al-Siyar , the imām concerned is called Abū Ḥātim Yaʿkub b. Ḥabīb al-Malzūzī al-Nad̲j̲īsī; he w…


(4,908 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(literally “circle”, “gathering of people seated in a circle”, and also “gathering of students around a teacher”), among the Ibāḍī-Wahbīs of the Mzāb [ q.v.] a religious council made up of twelve ʿazzāba (“recluses”, “clerks”; on the exact meaning of this word, see R. Rubinacci, Un antico documento di vita cenobitica musulmana, 47-8), and presided over by a s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ . On the mystical sense of ḥalḳa , the Ḳawāʿid al-Islām of al-Ḏj̲ayṭālī [ q.v.], which is the most complete code of the Ibāḍī sect (written probably in the first half of the 8th/14th century), says: “On…


(574 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, abū yaḥyā zakariyyāʾ , chief of the Berber tribe of Nafūsa and last Ibāḍī-Wahbī imām in North Africa. He is probably the same person as R. Basset refers to in error as Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā al-Ird̲j̲ānī, confusing him with his son, Abū Zakariyyāʾ b. Abī Yaḥyā al-Ird̲j̲ānī, who also was chief ( ḥākim ) of the Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa. According to the Ibāḍī document known under the name of Tasmiyat s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa wa-ḳurāhum (6th/12th century), Abū Zakariyyāʾ (error for Abū Yaḥyā Zakariyyaʾ) of Irkān (Ird̲j̲ān) was elected imām after Abū Ḥātim (that is Abū Ḥātim Yūsuf b. Abī ’l-Ya…


(469 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(and also Ḳaṣr Mānū or Tīn Mānū), ancient locality situated on the Mediterranean coast, in the western part of the plain of D̲j̲afāra, between Ḳābis (Gabès) and Aṭrābulus (Tripoli), and on the old route leading from Ifrīḳiya to Egypt. In our opinion it should be identified with [ Ad] Ammonem of the Ancients, a place situated about 30 km. west of the town of Sabratha, Ṣabra of the old Arabic sources. It was here that there took place, in 283/896-7, a great battle between the army of the Ag̲h̲labid amīr s and that of the great Ibāḍī Berber tribe of Nafūsa [ q.v.]. The latter people who lived in th…


(2,128 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(in Leo Africanus: Luntuna or Lumtuna), a great Berber tribe belonging to the branch of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a who led a nomadic life, and like other tribes of this branch forming part of the Mulat̲h̲t̲h̲amūn or “wearers of the veil” [see lit̲h̲ām ]. The Lamtūna nomadised over the western Sahara, where between the 2nd/8th and 5th/11th centuries they played a considerable political role. According to al-Bakrī (459/1067), the region covered by them stretched from the lands of Islam (i.e. the Mag̲h̲rib) to those of the blacks. This is what this ge…


(3,515 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, an important Berber ethnic group belonging to the family of Butr and whose eponymous ancestor was Lawā the Young, son of Lawā the Old. They are distant descendants of the Lebu (Lebou) of the Egyptian documents of the 13th century B.C., of the Lubīm or Lehabīm of the Bible, the Libues (Libyans) of the ancient Greeks, of the Laguantan of Corippus and the Leuathae of Procopius (6th century A.D.). It is probable that the Lebu (Lebou) of the Egyptians lived on the Mediterranean coast of Africa, bet…


(382 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(also al-D̲j̲enāwunī ), Abū ʿUbayda ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd , governor of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa for the Ibādite imāms of Tāhart. He was a native of the village of Īd̲j̲nāwun (also D̲j̲enāwen, in Berber Ignaun) situated below the town of D̲j̲ādū in the present district of Fassāṭo. He already enjoyed great prestige there about 196/811 during the stay of the imām ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rustam in the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa. On the death of Abu ’l-Ḥasan Ayyūb he was elected governor of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa by the people of the country and aft…

Ibn Baraka

(253 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Baraka al-ʿUmānī , Ibāḍī author born in the village of Bahlā in ʿUmān. The exact dates of his life are unknown. However, an Ibāḍī writer of ʿUmān, Ibn Mudād, regards him as a disciple and supporter of the imām Saʿd b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Maḥbūb, who was killed in 328/939-40. He himself played a considerable part in political life in ʿUmān and wrote several historical and juridical works, of which only the following survive: (1) K. al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ . dealing with the principles of law; (2) K. al-Muwāzana , on the state of ʿUmān in the time of ¶ the imām al-Ṣalt b. Mālik; i…

Ibn Salām

(281 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T
b. ʿumar (or ʿAmr ), the first known Ibāḍī historian of the Mag̲h̲rib. He lived, at ¶ least for a time (in about 240/855), at Tozeur in southern Tunisia. He is known to have been still living in 260/873-4. He is the author of an historical work on the Ibāḍīs of North Africa which has not survived, but fairly long extracts from which are found in the Kitāb al-Siyar of al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī. This work, whose title is not known, was compiled from the traditions related by the North African Ibāḍī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s, such as the author’s contemporary Abu Ṣāliḥ al-Nafūsī (whom h…


(1,121 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
or miṣrāta , also Mesrāta, important Berber tribe belonging to the branch of the Hawwāra [ q.v.] of the Barānis (Brānès) group. According to Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, to whom most of the information concerning this people is owed, the Misrāta derived their origin from a certain Meld, who was the son of Awrīg̲h̲, son of Barānis and the brother of the Hawwāra. According to Ibn Ḥazm, and also according to the Berber genealogist Sābiḳ b. Sulaymān, both quoted by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, the Misrāta and other families descended from Meld, inc…


(5,565 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, the name of an ancient and powerful Berber people which belonged to the great tribal family of the Lawāta [ q.v.]. According to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn. who makes brief mention of the Mazāta in his Histoire des Berbères , they constituted an important branch descended from Zayr, son of Lawā, ancestor of the Lawāta. According to Ibn Ḥawḳal (4th/10th century), the Mazāta and the Lawāta belonged to the major Berber tribal group of the Zanāta. Yet another historian of the Berbers, Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456/1064), considers the Mazāt…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥimyarī

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(or rather al-s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-faḳīh al-ʿadl Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim b. ʿAbd al-Nūr al-Ḥimyarī , author of the important Arabic geographical dictionary entitled Kitāb al-Rawḍ al-miʿṭār fi k̲h̲abar al-aḳṭār . Nothing is known of this writer apart from the facts that he came from the Mag̲h̲rib and that he was a jurisconsult ( faḳīh ) and a ḳāḍī’s assessor or notary ( ʿadl ). E. Lévi-Provençal was responsible for the discovery and the publication of a large part of his work ( La péninsule Ibérique au Moyen Age , d’après le Kitāb…


(582 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(also al-D̲j̲īṭālī , var. al-Ḏj̲iṭālī ), Abū Ṭāhir Ismāʿīl b. Mūsā , celebrated Ibāḍite scholar who was a native of Īd̲j̲ayṭāl (also Īd̲j̲īṭāl or D̲j̲iṭāl), an ancient village of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa still there today and now called Id̲j̲eyṭal or D̲j̲eyṭal. The date of his birth is unknown. However, we know that he was a pupil of the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿĪsā b. Mūsā al-Ṭarmīsī, who lived in the second half of the 7th/13th century. For some time he taught at Mazg̲h̲ūra (today Mezg̲h̲ūra or Timezg̲h̲ūra) in the eastern p…

Ibn al-Ṣag̲h̲īr

(357 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, historian, author of a chronicle on the Rustamid imāms of Tāhert. His work forms the earliest document on the Ibāḍis of North Africa which has survived up to the present, with the exception of extracts from the work of Ibn Salām b. ʿUmar [ q.v.]. The chronicle of Ibn al-Ṣag̲h̲īr was very highly esteemed by the Ibāḍī historians of the Mag̲h̲rib, two of whom, al-Barrādī [ q.v.] and al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī [ q.v.] quote large extracts from it. His opinions concerning the Ibāḍīs of Tāhert and particularly the Rustamids were certainly not hostile, in spite of an anti-Ibāḍī s…


(1,028 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Saʿīd b. Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. Īk̲h̲laf , an Ibāḍi jurist, poet and historian of the 7th/13th century, author of a historical and biographical work on the Ibāḍīs, the Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-Mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ . He belonged to a pious and learned Berber-Ibāḍī family from Tamīd̲j̲ār, a place in the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa in Tripolitania. His ancestor, al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Īk̲h̲laf b. Īk̲h̲laf al-Nafūsī al-Tamīd̲j̲ārī, an eminent faḳīh , lived in the neighbourhood of Nefṭa in the D̲j̲arīd [ q.v.]. Son of Īk̲h̲laf, the pious ʿAlī, who lived in the second half of the 6th/12th cent…

Abū G̲hānim Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲ānim al-K̲h̲urāsānī

(217 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, eminent Ibāḍī lawyer of the end of the 2nd/8th and the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, a native of Ḵh̲urāsān. On his way to the Rustamid imām ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (168-208/784-823) at Tāhart, to offer him his book al-Mudawwana , he stayed with the Ibāḍī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , Abū Ḥafṣ ʿAmrūs b. Fatḥ, of Ḏj̲abal Nafūsa, who rendered a service to Ibāḍī literature by conserving in the Mag̲h̲rib a copy of the work. The Mudawwana of Abū G̲h̲ānim is the oldest Ibāḍī treatise on general jurisprudence, according to the teaching of Abū ʿUbayda Muslim al-Tamīmī (d. under al-Manṣūr, 136-58/754-75; cf. ibāḍiyya …


(436 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, an ancient Berber people belonging to the branch of the Butr, and to the family of Ḍarīsa, who most probably lived in Tripolitania. If we are to believe Ibn K̲h̲aldūn (8th/14th century) and his sources, the Berber genealogists, the Malzūza were descendants of Fāṭin, son of Tamzīt, son of Ḍarī (eponym of the Ḍarīsa) and were the sister-tribe of the important Berber tribes of the Maṭg̲h̲ara, the Lamāya, the Ṣadīna, the Kūmiya, the Madyūna, the Mag̲h̲īla, the Maṭmāṭa, the Kas̲h̲āna (or Kas̲h̲āta) and the Dūna. The major…
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