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Aleppo codex (keter aram zovah)

(10 words)

Author(s): Meira Polliack
see Syria Meira Polliack

Zimmi

(6 words)

Author(s): Meira Polliack
see Dhimma Meira Polliack

David Ben Abraham al-Fāsī

(1,429 words)

Author(s): Meira Polliack
David ben Abraham al-Fāsī was a Karaite lexicographer and exegete in the mid-tenth century. His most famous work, Kitāb Jāmiʿ al-Alfāẓ, was the first Hebrew-Arabic dictionary of the Hebrew Bible. Although al-Fāsī or his family probably came from the city of Fez in Morocco, as suggested by his cognomen, he appears to have spent part of his life in Jerusalem, where he is believed to have composed his monumental dictionary sometime in the first half of the tenth century. He is not mentioned in Ibn al-Hītī’s chronicle of Karaite scholars, but there is other evidence connecting him to the Karaite …

1.3.6.1 Jewish Arabic Translations

(12,785 words)

Author(s): Meira Polliack
Part of 1 Overview Articles - 1.3 Primary Translations - 1.3.6 Arabic Translations (Rabbanite, Karaite, Christian, and Samaritan) 1.3.6.1.1 Historical Context During the ninth and tenth centuries c.e., the Jews of the Islamic world adopted the Arabic language for most forms of spoken and written communication. This sociolinguistic development created a growing need for a translation of the Hebrew Bible into Arabic. As with the Christian Arabic translation enterprise (1.4.11), the Jewish Arabic versions were primarily moti…
Date: 2016-11-01

3–5.1.8 Arabic Translations

(19 words)

Author(s): Meira Polliack | Meirav Nadler-Akirev
Part of 3–5 Former Prophets - 3–5.1 Primary Translations See 6–9.1.8. Meira Polliack Meirav Nadler-Akirev
Date: 2016-11-01

6–9.1.8 Arabic Translations

(4,509 words)

Author(s): Meira Polliack | Meirav Nadler-Akirav
Part of 6–9 Latter Prophets - 6–9.1 Primary Translations The earliest evidence of Jewish translations into Arabic of the prophetic books is found in glossaries dating from the ninth and tenth centuries c.e. that have been preserved in the Cairo Genizah.1 These glossaries contain sporadic or continuous lists of biblical words and phrases, which are arranged in columns or separated by dots from one or several Arabic translation equivalents. The equivalents are transcribed into Hebrew script and often attest to an early stage of the deve…
Date: 2016-11-01

19.3.7 Arabic Translations

(1,786 words)

Author(s): Meira Polliack | Meirav Nadler-Akirav | Yair Zoran
Part of 19 Ezra–Nehemiah - 19.3 Primary Translations 19.3.7.1 Medieval Rabbanite Translations Little is known in 2015 about the Jewish Arabic translations of the three last books of the Hebrew Bible, Ezra–Nehemiah and Chronicles. Despite their importance to biblical history, these books do not have liturgical or synagogue functions, and so they seem to have received less attention in ancient rabbinic circles, Jewish schoolrooms, and other learned groups.1 Another possibility is that they did draw interest at a particular time and were translated into Arabic amo…
Date: 2017-03-01

Bible Translations

(8,318 words)

Author(s): Benjamin Hary | David Bunis | Dalia Yasharpour | Meira Polliack
1. Judeo-Arabic (Ninth to Thirteenth Century) In ancient and medieval times, Jews translated the Hebrew Bible into their spoken tongues, such as Greek, Aramaic, and Arabic (as well as many other languages and vernaculars employed in specific periods and places). Unlike the various degrees of prohibition regarding scriptural translation in Islamic (as well as Christian) medieval lore and theology, there was no halakhic or theological prohibition of scriptural translation per se among the Jews, although ther…

Cairo Geniza

(12,956 words)

Author(s): Stefan Reif | Miriam Frenkel | Meira Polliack | Ben Outhwaite | Esther-Miriam Wagner
1. General Survey and History of Discovery Source " Geniza" is a convenient one-word title to describe an extensive and unique collection of medieval manuscripts, mainly in Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic, and Aramaic, and usually written on vellum and paper, that has illuminated virtually every aspect of life in and around the eastern Mediterranean areas of the Islamic world a thousand years ago. The collection, consisting of well in excess of 200,000 items (written on almost half a million folios) was amassed in …