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Reservation

(274 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] ist die Einschränkung bzw. der Entzug von Vollmachten eines untergeordneten Amtsträgers nach Maßgabe des durch einen höheren Oberen (Papst, Bischof, Bischofskonferenz) ausgesprochenen Vorbehalts (Devolutionsrecht, Prävention). R. des Apostolischen Stuhls bzw. Papstes bestehen im Blick auf Kirchenämter und Kirchenverfassung (öff. Vereine [c.312 § 1 Nr. 1 CIC/1983], Teilkirchen [c.373], Kirchenprovinzen [c.431 § 3], Bischofskonferenzen [c.449 § 1], ökum. Konzil [c.338], Bischofssyn…

Provision

(148 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] ist im kath. Kirchenrecht Fachausdruck für alle Arten hoheitlicher Verleihungen durch Einzeldekret auf dem Verwaltungsweg (c.48 CIC/1983; c.1510 @ 2, 1 CCEO; Verwaltung: IV.,3.). Näherhin geht es um die Verleihung von Rechtsfähigkeit (juristische Personen: cc.114 @ 1; 116 @ 2 CIC/1983; öfftl. Vereine [: II.,1., b]: c.313 CIC/1983), von Vollmachten (Delegation: cc.131 @ 1; 133; 137 CIC/1983; Firm- und Beichtvollmacht: cc.882; 969 CIC/1983; Delegation der Eheschließungsassistenz…

Taxen

(222 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] (lat. taxare, »prüfen, (ab)schätzen«), sind rechtlich die auf einer gesetzlichen Grundlage beruhenden Vergütungssätze für bestimmte Leistungen. Im Unterschied zu erbetenen Unterstützungen (subventiones; c.1262 CIC/1983), diözesanen Steuern bzw. Abgaben (tributum; vgl. c.1263 CIC/1983), der Seminarsteuer (c.264 CIC/1983; Priesterseminar), Missionsabgaben (c.791, 4° CIC/1983) und zur Kirchensteuer werden Gebühren (taxae) für Akte der freiwilligen Rechtspflege (Verwaltung) oder den …

Anathema

(153 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] The word “anathema” originally meant an offering consecrated to a deity, or a curse (Blessing). Anathema as banishment or exclusion from the community was a common practice before Christianity, which adopted it as a disciplinary measure after the analogy of the OT ban and the practice of exclusion at Qumran. In the penal code of the church, “anathema” referred to excommunication, especially when solemnly imposed as provided in the Pontifcale Romanum ( CIC 1917, c. 2257, §2). This form of excommunication was not included in CIC 1983. Neither does the formula anathema sit

Constitutions, Apostolic

(130 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the Catholic Church, the term constitutions (from Lat. constituere, “set up, appoint”) refers to the decrees of a pope or council (cf. CIC/1983, c. 754) as well as the statutes of religious orders. Today, it is used primarily for statutes decreed ¶ by the pope as Constitutiones apostolicae in the style of an ordinary bull (Bullae) and administrative actions by the heads of curial offices. In the law governing religious orders, the statutes of institutes of consecrated life, secular institutes, and societies of the apostolic life are called constitutions. Wilhelm Ree…

Tonsure

(183 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Latin canon law, tonsure denotes the shaving of the hair of a (monastic) cleric as a sign that he belongs to God; it can also denote the resulting bald area. Unlike in the Uniate Eastern Churches (cf. Ius Orientale, De personis c. 38 §1, 1°: AAS 49, 1957, 448), as prima tonsura ( ordo ad faciendum clericum) it constituted admission to the clerical state (cf. CIC/1917, c. 108 §1; C. 12 q. 1 c.7 Liber Extra [X] 1.36.6; Incardination, Consecration/Ordination/Dedication). Even under CIC/1917 it was already being discontinued (cf. CIC/1917, c. 136 §1); postconciliar legi…

Antistes

(102 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Lat. anti-/antestare, to be at the head of, to deserve priority), in pre- and post-Christian times indicates the head of a cultic community, later also bishops, abbots, and the pope. In the reformed state churches of Switzerland, Antistes was the title of the highest cleric in the city. “Antistes Urbanis” (prelate of the papal house) was eliminated in the reform of the papal house (Mar 28, 1968). Antistes occurs in the liturgy and in the CIC (c. 667 § 4: antistita). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography M. Gelzer, RGG 3 I, 1957, 459 D. v. Huebner, LMA I, 1980, 725f.

Consultation

(181 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Lat. consultare, “ask for advice”) in Catholic canon law means the seeking of advice that preserves the ultimate responsibility of the seeker, yet at the same time involves that person in a collegial conferring process (cf. Priests' council College of Consultors [Consultors, College of], Diocesan Income Administrative Council, Diocesan Pastoral Council; Diocesan synod). Canon 127 CIC/1983 (c. 934 CCEO) standardizes the agreement rights of third parties. Consultation grows out of the communio structure of the church, as wel…

Incardination

(164 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law, incardination denotes the obligatory incorporation of all clergy into a clerical collegiate body (particular church, personal prelature, etc.) at the time of their ordination to the diaconate (cf. CIC/1983 cc. 265–272; CCEO cc. 357–366). Through incardination the cleric comes under the authority of his ordinarius proprius and at the same time acquires a legal claim to ministerial employment, supervision, and economic support. In the case of religious institutes and clerical societies of the apostolic life,…

Parish Administrator

(180 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] ( administrator paroecialis) is a priest whom the diocesan bishop has to appoint if a parish is vacant (cf. CIC c. 538, 1983; CCEO c. 297), or the parish priest is prevented from fulfilling his pastoral duties ( CIC c. 539, 1983; CCEO c. 298). Until the parish administrator is appointed, the Pfarrvikar (Chaplain) assumes direction of the parish (cf. CIC c. 541, 1983; CCEO c. 300). As a rule, the parish administrator has the same privileges, duties, and rights as the parish priest, and has to give account of his office (cf. CIC c. 540, 1983; CCEO c. 299). The installation of a…

Affiliation

(90 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law, similar to the secular realm, “affiliation” (Lat. affiliare: “adopt”) denotes a special relationship of association; more specifically it is used in terms of aggregation (laws of religious orders and associations), incorporation or incardination and, in the context of the law code governing higher education, the affiliation of a university with a faculty. On the basis of papal privilege, letters of affiliation granted participation in the good works of a religious association. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography E. Magnin, DCC I, 1935, 263f.

Aequitas canonica

(112 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] This principle of Catholic canon law is rooted in the aequitas (“equity”) of Roman law, in biblical thinking, and in Aristotle's theory of epikeia (Epiky). The aim of the aequitas canonica (unlike that of epikeia) is to achieve a harmony between already codified law and the legal judgment required in a specific situation. The effect is a moderation of existing law; on occasion, however, the law may also be tightened ( oikonomia). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography E. Wohlhaupter, Aequitas canonica, 1931 G. Wingren, art. “Billigkeit” TRE VI, 1980, 642–645 A. Hollerbach, art. “…

Delegation

(167 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is, in Catholic canon law (II, 1), the transfer of administrative authority independent of an office (c. 131 CIC; cc. 981 §1; 983 §1 CCEO) by law or administrative order. Authority can be delegated for individual actions or for all cases. Legislative authority, as a rule, cannot be delegated (c. 135 §2 CIC; c. 985 §2 CCEO; judicial authority can only be delegated for the preparation of judicial decisions (c. 135 §3 CIC; c. 985 §3 CCEO). In the strictest sense, delegation pertains only to clerics, but in a limited sense also to lay people (c. 483 §2; 1282; 129 CIC; cc. 253 §2; 979 CCE…

Ordinariate

(161 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] Resulting from the separation of functions required by the ecclesiastical lawgiver (e.g. CIC/1983 c.135; CCEO c. 985; Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical), and alongside the diocesan court (Consistory), the ordinariate is the authority in the diocesan curia (cf. CIC/1983 cc. 469–494; CCEO cc. 243–263) which serves the administration of the diocese (also denoted general vicariate; Bishopric) under the direction of the vicar general (cf. CIC/1983 c. 475). Requirements include a chancellor, additional notaries as needed, a property adminstrator, and …

Church Rector

(176 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] ( rector ecclesiae). In Catholic canon law, the church rector is a priest who is entrusted with the care of a church that is neither a parish nor a chapter church (Chapter) and that is not associated with a branch of a religious order or with any of the Societies of the Apostolic Life (cf. cc. 556–563 CIC/1983; cc. 304–310 CCEO). As a rule, the diocesan bishop (Bishop: III, 1) freely appoints the church rector (c. 557 §1 CIC/1983). The local ordinary has the authority to recall him (c. 563 in connection with cc. 192–195 CIC/1983). The church rector has worship duties…

Approbation

(77 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the usage of the Catholic Church, “approbation” (Lat. approbatio, approbare) means acceptance, approval, recognition, affirmation, or authorization by the competent authority. Approbation provides legal justification or approval; it is required for admission to certain positions and offices, for hearing confessions, and for proclamation of the word ( missio canonica; imprimatur). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography G. May, “Verschiedene Arten des Partikularrechtes,” AKathKR 152, 1983, 31–45 W. Aymans & K. Mörsdorf, Kanonisches Recht 1, 131991, 375–381.

Audientia episcopalis

(102 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic ecclesiastical law, audientia episcopalis ( Cod. Just. I, 4) denotes the jurisdiction exercised by bishops. The authority of bishops to arbitrate in secular disputes (cf. 1 Cor 6:1–7) even if one party objects, recognized by Constantine the Great, was soon limited to cases involving compromise. Audientia episcopalis remained in force for internal ecclesiastical matters and for clergy (jurisdictional immunity; criminous clerics). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography G. Vismara, Episcopalis audientia, 1937 A. Steinwenter, RAC I, 1950, 915–917 DDC VI, 1957, …

Expectative

(159 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law (II), an expectative was the legally binding assurance that an office (benefice) that was not yet vacant would be granted to the beneficiary when that office was vacated. Expectatives came into being after the 12th century, with Alexander III ( Liber Extra 3.8.2) and Boniface VIII ( Liber Sextus 3.7.2) taking action against abuses. All such rights were abrogated by the Council of Trent (session XXIV c. 19 de ref.). While not actually forbidden by current canon law, expectatives lack legal force ( CIC c.153 §3; CCEO c. 943 §3; similarly CIC c. 150 §2 19…

Desecration

(155 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] deprives sacred objects (c. 1171 CIC; res sacrae ) or locations ( CIC c. 1205; loci sacri; cemetery) destined for worship or the burial of believers of their symbolic distinctiveness or dedication (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication). This occurs for sacred places if they have been substantially destroyed, declared profane by a decree of the responsible ordinarius, or converted de facto to a profane use ( CIC c. 1212; cf. CIC c. 1222: profane, but not unworthy use). The same applies to an altar ( CIC c. 1238 §1). The declaration tha…

Canonical Provision

(185 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is a technical term in Catholic canon law for all types of sovereign grants through individual administrative decrees (c. 48 CIC/1983; c. 1510 § 2, 1 CCEO; administration: IV, 3). More precisely, it involves the grant of legal capacity (Juridical persons: cc. 114 § 1; 116 § 2 CIC/1983; public Voluntary associations [II, 1.b]: c. 313 CIC/1983), of authorities (Delegation: cc. 131 § 1; 133; 137 CIC/1983; the authority to confirm and hear confession: cc. 882; 969 CIC/1983; delegation of the authority to perform marriages: c. 1111 CIC/1983), of names and titles (cf. cc.…
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